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Table 1 Studies detecting heteroresistance to metronidazole and/or clarithromycin in Helicobacter pylori isolates/positive samples

From: Heteroresistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole in patients with a Helicobacter pylori infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Country H. pylori-positive patients Testing method MTZ_R MTZ_HR CLR_R CLR_HR
Kocsmár et al., 2020 [12] Hungary 305 rRNA‐targeted FISH NA NA 35 38
Güven et al., 2019 [19] Turkey 93 HelicoDR test NA NA 22 12
Farzi et al., 2019 [16] Iran 40 Sequencing of 23S rDNA NA NA 7 7
Arévalo-Jaimes et al., 2019 [17] Colombia 63 Sequencing 23S rDNA NA NA 19 5
Sun et al., 2018 [20] China 49 Droplet digital PCR NA NA 11 13
Mascellino et al., 2018 [21] Italy 40 (30) E-test, Real-Time PCR 15 1 15 4
Aguilera-Correa et al., 2017 [22] Spain 111 HelicoDR test NA NA 53 11
Mansour et al., 2016 [23] Tunisia, France 42 E-test 21 7 12 6
Navarro-Jarabo et al., 2015 [24] Spain 401 HelicoDR test NA NA 35 37
Kao et al., 2014 [14] Taiwan 412 E-test NA 16 NA 1
Selgrad et al., 2014 [25] Germany 66 E-test 30 4 27 2
Ayala et al., 2011 [26] Mexico 90 E-test 47 17 4 5
Marzio et al., 2011 [27] Italy 68 Agar dilution NA NA 12 15
Norazah et al., 2009 [28] Malaysia 22 E-test 6 6 0 1
Matteo et al., 2006 [15] Argentina 42 Agar dilution 6 8 NA NA
Raymond et al., 2005 [29] France 28 E-test 22 14 13 3
Lee et al., 2005 [30] South Korea 21 Agar dilution 4 12 2 5
Rimbara et al., 2005 [31] Japan 542 (541) Agar dilution 4 4 39 25
Kim et al., 2003 [13] South Korea 220 Agar dilution 72 28 7 6
Masuda et al., 2003 [32] Japan 65 PCR-SSCP, sequencing NA NA 5 11
van der Ende et al., 2001 [33] Netherlands 976 E-test NA NA 45 6
Weel et al., 1996 [34] Netherlands 156 Disk diffusion test, E-test 37 52 NA NA
  1. The number in brackets indicates the number of samples investigated for metronidazole resistance when it differed from the number of samples investigated for clarithromycin resistance
  2. R resistance (samples/isolates with heteroresistance are not included), HR heteroresistance