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Table 1 Antimicrobial susceptibility rates found in gram-positive bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections in three HMG facilities in Saudi Arabia (2015–2019)

From: Antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria: a 5-year retrospective analysis at a multi-hospital healthcare system in Saudi Arabia

Staphylococcus aureus 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Total P-value*
(N = 903 isolates) (N = 666 isolates) (N = 940 isolates) (N = 1,122 isolates) (N = 1,222 isolates) (N = 4,853 isolates)
T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S%
AMP 191 64 33.5 131 52 39.7 169 93 55 157 87 55.4 222 63 28.4 870 359 41.3 0.828
CLX 677 544 80.4 444 331 74.5 797 656 82.3 747 679 90.9 887 735 82.9 3552 2945 82.9 0.649
CTN 230 109 47.4 209 89 42.6 266 134 50.4 266 154 57.9 252 161 63.9 1223 647 52.9 0.937
CIP 664 457 68.8 446 321 72 671 498 74.2 511 453 88.6 548 487 88.9 2840 2216 78 0.993
LVX 389 288 74 228 169 74.1 552 426 77.2 588 532 90.5 700 627 89.6 2457 2042 83.1 0.864
DCN 322 153 47.5 155 87 56.1 181 93 51.4 258 124 48.1 192 139 72.4 1108 596 53.8 0.983
TCN 514 305 59.3 489 423 86.5 891 838 94.1 1001 989 98.8 1201 1079 89.8 4096 3634 88.7 0.335
GMN 888 819 92.2 641 582 90.8 889 871 98 1022 955 93.4 1193 1098 92 4633 4325 93.4 0.775
EMN 722 696 96.4 558 473 84.8 791 740 93.6 971 813 83.7 991 929 93.7 4033 3651 90.5 0.659
CMN 804 780 97 576 513 89.1 896 871 97.2 1103 967 87.7 1187 1071 90.2 4566 4202 92 0.697
NFT 441 317 71.9 334 207 62 454 371 81.7 454 321 70.7 345 266 77.1 2028 1482 73.1 0.712
TMP-SMZ 595 463 77.8 591 524 88.7 865 819 94.7 1022 947 92.7 1201 996 82.9 4274 3749 87.7 0.542
LZD 903 903 100 641 625 97.5 790 773 97.8 1110 1003 90.4 1100 1076 97.8 4544 4380 96.4 0.931
VMN 901 895 99.3 651 624 95.9 938 931 99.3 1113 1109 99.6 1200 1181 98.4 4803 4740 98.7 0.721
MRSA 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Total P-value*
(N = 359 isolates) (N = 335 isolates) (N = 284 isolates) (N = 443 isolates) (N = 310 isolates) (N = 1,731 isolates)
T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S%
AMP 90 13 14.4 44 8 18.2 51 7 13.7 74 15 20.3 69 21 30.4 328 64 19.5 0.814
CLX 116 72 62.1 147 86 58.5 147 81 55.1 311 138 44.4 290 141 48.6 1011 518 51.2 0.963
CTN 11 7 63.6 33 9 27.3 64 13 20.3 67 11 16.4 50 8 16 225 48 21.3 0.956
CIP 190 141 74.2 187 112 59.9 229 108 47.2 401 198 49.4 301 245 81.4 1308 804 61.5 0.924
LVX 55 31 56.4 99 46 46.5 187 75 40.1 366 131 35.8 260 115 44.2 967 398 41.2 0.693
DCN 222 110 49.5 189 122 64.6 280 141 50.4 410 191 46.6 307 154 50.2 1408 718 51 0.964
TCN 141 101 71.6 211 118 55.9 179 108 60.3 440 251 57 303 271 89.4 1274 849 66.6 0.860
GMN 291 121 41.6 277 129 46.6 151 116 76.8 432 216 50 300 284 94.7 1451 866 59.7 0.888
EMN 144 91 63.2 177 102 57.6 111 97 87.4 331 176 53.2 271 232 85.6 1034 698 67.5 0.878
CMN 220 93 42.3 254 113 44.5 161 108 67.1 411 203 49.4 300 264 88 1346 781 58 0.838
NFT 181 117 64.6 311 213 68.5 281 241 85.8 441 399 90.5 308 287 93.2 1522 1257 82.6 0.346
TMP-SMZ 233 88 37.8 268 114 42.5 229 108 47.2 409 201 49.1 290 227 78.3 1429 738 51.6 0.892
LZD 241 118 49 264 138 52.3 223 123 55.2 439 251 57.2 299 175 58.5 1466 805 54.9 0.974
VMN 299 121 40.5 285 138 48.4 258 123 47.7 440 251 57 305 175 57.4 1587 808 50.9 0.975
CoNS 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Total P-value*
(N = 543 isolates) (N = 276 isolates) (N = 351 isolates) (N = 426 isolates) (N = 424 isolates) (N = 2,020 isolates)
T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S%
AMP 190 31 16.3 177 21 11.9 166 33 19.9 291 42 14.4 348 51 14.7 1172 178 15.2 0.948
CLX 164 88 53.7 190 64 33.7 289 96 33.2 408 146 35.8 333 114 34.2 1384 508 36.7 0.936
CTN 491 263 53.6 270 239 99.6 340 301 88.5 420 364 86.7 409 373 91.2 1930 1570 81.3 0.962
CIP 277 122 44 257 124 48.2 300 94 31.3 360 129 35.8 340 170 50 1534 639 41.7 0.991
LVX 130 46 35.4 211 56 26.5 288 142 49.3 420 173 41.2 211 85 40.3 1260 502 39.8 0.903
DCN 511 336 65.8 271 261 96.3 349 313 89.7 410 378 92.2 420 381 90.7 1961 1669 85.1 0.951
TCN 499 169 33.9 270 211 78.1 333 283 85 420 316 75.2 424 378 89.2 1946 1357 69.7 0.930
GMN 538 292 54.3 255 176 69 348 269 77.3 418 320 76.6 420 327 77.9 1979 1384 69.9 0.982
EMN 333 95 28.5 116 51 44 270 83 30.7 339 106 31.3 198 98 49.5 1256 433 34.5 0.966
CMN 531 255 48 266 156 58.6 269 235 87.4 399 282 70.7 339 293 86.4 1804 1221 67.7 0.981
NFT 170 77 45.3 233 99 42.5 331 225 68 411 250 60.8 400 344 86 1545 995 64.4 0.819
TMP-SMZ 369 153 41.5 276 199 72.1 350 298 85.1 400 349 87.3 407 327 80.3 1802 1326 73.6 0.831
LZD 541 535 98.9 276 273 98.9 351 351 100 426 426 100 424 424 100 2018 2009 99.6 0.967
VMN 543 537 98.9 276 276 100 351 351 100 426 426 100 424 424 100 2020 2014 99.7 0.968
Enterococcus species 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Total P-value*
(N = 481 isolates) (N = 370 isolates) (N = 447 isolates) (N = 411 isolates) (N = 557 isolates) (N = 2266 isolates)
T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S%
AMP 460 305 66.3 330 252 76.4 422 378 89.6 377 318 84.4 533 508 95.3 2122 1761 83 0.539
CLX 469 280 59.7 340 299 87.9 430 364 84.7 388 381 98.2 499 433 86.8 2126 1757 82.6 0.618
CTN 281 61 21.7 277 79 28.5 414 110 26.6 350 124 35.4 444 151 34 1766 525 29.7 0.850
CIP 369 164 44.4 299 127 42.5 398 169 42.5 322 111 34.5 471 97 20.6 1859 668 35.9 0.965
LVX 379 243 64.1 310 182 58.7 441 305 69.2 401 275 68.6 333 188 56.5 1864 1193 64 0.928
DCN 244 32 13.1 177 20 11.3 288 44 15.3 200 59 29.5 347 67 19.3 1256 222 17.7 0.812
TCN 201 32 15.9 222 40 18 333 203 61 190 92 48.4 500 143 28.6 1446 510 35.3 0.213
GMN 298 113 37.9 191 76 39.8 430 123 28.6 310 152 49 499 183 36.7 1728 647 37.4 0.972
EMN 411 145 35.3 301 42 14 357 153 42.9 188 53 28.2 331 65 19.6 1588 458 28.8 0.824
CMN 177 28 15.8 191 45 23.6 299 61 20.4 191 77 40.3 189 81 42.9 1047 292 27.9 0.506
NFT 322 116 36 355 300 84.5 438 393 89.7 391 364 93.1 541 482 89.1 2047 1655 80.9 0.306
TMP-SMZ 280 63 22.5 339 276 81.4 409 291 71.1 336 273 81.3 534 376 70.4 1898 1279 67.4 0.646
LZD 481 470 97.7 370 370 100 447 447 100 411 411 100 557 556 99.8 2266 2254 99.5 0.874
VMN 481 237 49.3 370 361 97.6 440 435 98.9 410 364 88.8 550 537 97.6 2251 1934 85.9 0.517
Overall 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Total P-value*
(N = 2286 isolates) (N = 1647 isolates) (N = 2022 isolates) (N = 2402 isolates) (N = 2513 isolates) (N = 10,870 isolates)
T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S% T S S%
AMP 931 413 44.4 682 333 48.8 808 511 63.2 899 462 51.4 1172 643 54.9 4492 2362 52.6 0.971
CLX 1426 984 69 1121 780 69.6 1663 1197 72 1854 1344 72.5 2009 1423 70.8 8073 5728 71 0.874
CTN 1013 440 43.4 789 446 56.5 1084 558 51.5 1103 653 59.2 1155 693 60 5144 2790 54.2 0.933
CIP 1500 884 58.9 1189 684 57.5 1598 869 54.4 1594 891 55.9 1660 999 60.2 7541 4327 57.4 0.969
LVX 953 608 63.8 848 453 53.4 1468 948 64.6 1775 1111 62.6 1504 1015 67.5 6548 4135 63.1 0.610
DCN 1299 631 48.6 792 490 61.9 1098 591 53.8 1278 752 58.8 1266 741 58.5 5733 3205 55.9 0.939
TCN 1355 607 44.8 1192 792 66.4 1736 1432 82.5 2051 1648 80.4 2428 1871 77.1 8762 6350 72.5 0.556
GMN 2015 1345 66.7 1364 963 70.6 1818 1379 75.9 2182 1643 75.3 2412 1892 78.4 9791 7222 73.8 0.905
EMN 1610 1027 63.8 1152 668 58 1529 1073 70.2 1829 1148 62.8 1791 1324 73.9 7911 5240 66.2 0.965
CMN 1732 1156 66.7 1287 827 64.3 1625 1275 78.5 2104 1529 72.7 2015 1709 84.8 8763 6496 74.1 0.922
NFT 1114 627 56.3 1233 819 66.4 1504 1230 81.8 1697 1334 78.6 1594 1379 86.5 7142 5389 75.5 0.032
TMP-SMZ 1477 767 51.9 1474 1113 75.5 1853 1516 81.8 2167 1770 81.7 2432 1926 79.2 9403 7092 75.4 0.595
LZD 2166 2026 93.5 1551 1406 90.7 1811 1694 93.5 2386 2091 87.6 2380 2231 93.7 10,294 9448 91.8 0.875
VMN 2224 1790 80.5 1582 1399 88.4 1987 1849 92.6 2389 2163 90 2479 2357 93.5 10,661 9558 89.1 0.901
  1. N Number of pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections, T number of tested isolates, S number of susceptible pathogens, S (%) percentage of susceptible pathogens, MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, CoNS coagulase-negative staphylococci, AMP ampicillin, CLX cloxacillin, CTN cefoxitin, CIP ciprofloxacin, LVX levofloxacin, NFT nitrofurantoin, EMN erythromycin, CMN clindamycin, TMP-SMZ trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, GMN gentamicin, DCN doxycycline, TCN tetracycline, VMN vancomycin, LZD linezolid
  2. *Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for resistance trend