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Table 1 Comparison between bacterial and aseptic meningitis

From: Point-of-care cerebrospinal fluid Gram stain for the management of acute meningitis in adults: a retrospective observational study

  Bacterial meningitis   Aseptic meningitis   p value
  N = 34   N = 97   
Median age (IQR) 60 (44–68)   30 (23–34)    < 0.0001*
Male sex 19/34 (55.9%)   51/97 (52.6%)   0.74
Medical histories
 Symptom duration days (IQR) 2.5 (0–5)   3 (1–4)   0.71
 Shaking chills 9/34 (26.5%)   6/97 (6.2%)   0.001*
 Previous antibiotic exposure within 48 h 12/34 (35.3%)   9/97 (9.2%)    < 0.001*
 Immunocompromised host 17/34 (50.0%)   8/97 (8.2%)    < 0.001*
Vital signs and physical examinations
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) (IQR) 136 (120–150)   112 (100–120)    < 0.0001*
 Pulse rate (/min) (IQR) 113 (100–126)   88 (80–96)    < 0.0001*
 Respiratory rate (/min) (IQR) 24 (20–30)   20 (18–22)   0.0002*
 Body temperature (℃) (IQR) 38.6 (37.9–39.3)   37.7 (37.1–38.4)    < 0.0001*
 Glasgow Coma Scale (IQR) 11 (9–14)   15 (15–15)    < 0.0001*
 Neck stiffness 28/33 (84.9%)   47/95 (49.5%)   0.002*
 Jolt accentuation 5/6 (83.3%)   53/64 (82.8%)   0.97
Laboratory data
 White blood cell counts (/μL) (IQR) 13,800 (11,000–16,200)   7800 (5900–9900)    < 0.0001*
 C-reactive protein (mg/dL) (IQR) 6.7 (1.3–19.4)   0.18 (0.02–0.9)    < 0.0001*
 CSF cell counts (/μL) (IQR) 1116 (140–4200)   80 (37–156)    < 0.0001*
 CSF monocytes (%) (IQR) 5 (3–17)   74 (27–95)    < 0.0001*
 CSF protein (mg/dL) (IQR) 287 (100–420)   66 (51–94)    < 0.0001*
 CSF glucose (mg/dL) (IQR) 37 (1–59)   57 (53–63)   0.0001*
 CSF glucose/blood glucose ratio (IQR) 0.17 (0.006–0.43)   0.55 (0.50–0.60)    < 0.0001*
 CSF bacteria confirmed with PCGS 31/34 (91.2%)   1/97 (1.0%)    < 0.001*
 CSF culture positivity 34/34 (100%)   0    < 0.001*
 Blood culture positivity 29/34 (85.3%)   0    < 0.001*
Etiologic agent Streptococcus pneumoniae 20 Mumps virus 8  
  Klebsiella pneumoniae 5 Varicella zoster 5  
  Streptococcus bovis 4 Cytomegalovirus 2  
  Bacteroides fragilis 1 Herpes simplex 2  
  Escherichia coli 1 Unknown 80  
  Haemophilus influenzae 1    
  Lactococcus lactis cremoris 1    
  Listeria monocytogenes 1    
Complications
 Infection sites other than meningitis 9/34 (26.7%)   13/97 (13.4%)   0.079
 Strongyloides coinfection 10/34 (29.4%)   0    < 0.001*
Treatment
 Antibiotics other than acyclovir 34/34 (100%)   38/97 (39.2%)    < 0.001*
 Steroid use 4/34 (11.8%)   0   0.005*
 Antimicrobial treatment days (IQR) 14 (12–14)   3 (3–5)   0.0001*
Outcome
 Death 4/34 (11.8%)   0   0.004*
 Neurological sequelae 4/30 (13.3%)   0   0.004*
  1. CSF cerebrospinal fluid, IQR interquartile range, PCGS point-of-care Gram stain
  2. * p < 0.05