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Table 2 Pipeline of major COVID-19 vaccines in clinical trials

From: COVID-19 vaccine development: What lessons can we learn from TB?

Vaccine name Vaccine type Clinical phase Description
INO-4800 DNA I/II Synthetic DNA vaccine targeting SARS-CoV S protein [55]
RBD-dimer Recombinant subunit II Beta-CoV vaccine against beta coronaviruses [56]
CTII-nCoV Adenovirus-vector II Adenovirus vector encodes for full-length S protein [58]
BNT162 mRNA III Four vaccine candidates include:
 BNT62a1 and BNT62b1: contain nucleoside modified RNA,
 BNT162b2: uridine containing mRNA, and
 BNT162c2: using self-amplifying mRNA. Each is composed of S protein and combined with a lipid nanoparticle formulation [57]
mRNA-1273 mRNA III Lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA-based vaccine encoding full length S protein [59]
Ad26COVS1 Adenovirus-vector III Replication deficient adenovirus type 5 vector expressing S protein [60]
AZD1222 Adenovirus-vector III Chimpanzee adenovirus vector expressing S glycoprotein [61]
CoronaVac Inactivated virus III Adsorbed COVID-19 (inactivated) vaccine [62]
BBIBP-CorV Inactivated virus III Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 HB02 strain [63]