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Table 2 Comparison of culture-independent techniques applied for the screening of antibiotic resistance

From: Rapid screening for antibiotic resistance elements on the RNA transcript, protein and enzymatic activity level

Detection method FISH Immunofluorescence Nitrocefin assay
Target mRNA Protein Enzymatic activity
Speed (h) 5 7 <1
Costs Moderate Moderate/high Low
Simultaneous species identification Possible Possible Not possible
Specificity Narrow, type-specific (e.g. TEM) Narrow, type-specific (e.g. TEM) Broad
Drawbacks Transcription is no correlate for efficient expression Specific antibodies required Not suitable on the single cell level