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Table 2 Mean [± standard error] zones of clearance (mm) around all the antibiotics for Gram positive bacteria [NM – Not measured

From: Evaluating antibiotics for use in medicine using a poloxamer biofilm model

  ANTIBIOTIC
BACTERIA Test Method [mm] Amoxycillin/Clavulanic acid Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ciprofloxacin Clindamycin Erythromycin Erythromycin Imipenem Levofloxacin Meropenem Penicillin G
   30 μg 20 μg 30 μg 5 μg 10 μg 15 μg 30 μg 10 μg 5 μg 10 μg 5 IU
Bacillus cereus Agar 13.87 ± 0.24 13.20 ± 0.00 14.93 ± 0.24 25.47 ± 0.07 25.73 ± 0.18 28.80 ± 0.23 30.07 ± 0.13 33.00 ± 0.64 24.87 ± 0.18 31.27 ± 0.68 7.07 ± 0.07
  Poloxamer 11.60 ± 0.00 11.80 ± 0.00 12.33 ± 0.13 17.13 ± 0.33 15.40 ± 0.23 16.73 ± 0.18 18.13 ± 0.07 22.40 ± 1.11 18.00 ± 0.12 22.33 ± 0.18 0.00 ± 0.00
Bacillus licheniformis Agar 25.87 ± 0.24 23.47 ± 0.66 25.73 ± 0.13 34.67 ± 0.84 0.00 ± 0.00 30.80 ± 0.20 31.27 ± 0.55 39.27 ± 0.18 33.33 ± 0.18 41.53 ± 0.07 0.00 ± 0.00
  Poloxamer 18.13 ± 0.13 17.40 ± 0.00 18.20 ± 0.20 22.70 ± 0.32 8.73 ± 0.13 16.33 ± 0.07 17.53 ± 0.07 27.40 ± 0.12 21.60 ± 0.23 23.47 ± 0.18 9.40 ± 0.20
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Agar NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM
  Poloxamer 29.87 ± 0.13 27.33 ± 0.29 28.93 ± 0.47 31.53 ± 0.59 18.13 ± 0.18 25.87 ± 0.48 26.40 ± 0.64 35.33 ± 0.55 28.93 ± 1.23 30.13 ± 0.64 22.73 ± 0.29
Corynebacterium renale Agar NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM
  Poloxamer 32.47 ± 0.75 31.20 ± 0.23 31.00 ± 0.69 20.20 ± 0.12 19.07 ± 0.35 22.33 ± 0.18 24.00 ± 0.00 35.53 ± 0.13 19.40 ± 0.00 30.47 ± 0.27 25.40 ± 0.31
Enterococcus faecalis Agar 31.67 ± 0.13 27.07 ± 0.13 29.20 ± 0.00 20.87 ± 0.07 12.00 ± 0.20 24.53 ± 0.18 25.53 ± 0.24 29.67 ± 0.47 22.13 ± 0.24 23.27 ± 0.27 20.13 ± 0.64
  Poloxamer 16.80 ± 0.20 17.13 ± 0.24 18.60 ± 0.12 13.53 ± 0.18 8.20 ± 0.12 10.00 ± 0.20 10.47 ± 0.18 19.27 ± 0.18 13.13 ± 0.18 15.73 ± 0.13 12.27 ± 0.13
Listeria ivanovii Agar 11.07 ± 0.27 7.20 ± 0.00 7.73 ± 0.07 36.07 ± 0.29 7.27 ± 0.07 9.87 ± 0.07 11.80 ± 0.83 36.60 ± 0.69 28.27 ± 0.47 25.40 ± 0.40 7.40 ± 0.12
  Poloxamer 8.67 ± 0.13 7.20 ± 0.00 7.20 ± 0.00 22.07 ± 0.41 7.20 ± 0.00 8.73 ± 0.07 8.67 ± 0.07 22.67 ± 0.07 20.73 ± 0.13 19.47 ± 0.41 0.00 ± 0.00
Listeria monocytogenes Agar 22.87 ± 0.27 30.33 ± 0.75 32.60 ± 0.20 27.87 ± 0.24 24.87 ± 0.71 26.33 ± 1.98 28.00 ± 2.01 31.53 ± 0.85 26.00 ± 0.31 32.13 ± 0.97 25.07 ± 0.24
  Poloxamer 18.27 ± 0.66 16.67 ± 0.90 21.27 ± 0.37 13.07 ± 1.05 11.27 ± 0.77 15.60 ± 0.31 13.93 ± 0.13 20.13 ± 0.33 13.40 ± 0.31 13.00 ± 6.51 11.80 ± 1.11
Micrococcus sp Agar NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM
  Poloxamer 34.40 ± 0.31 33.80 ± 0.20 34.33 ± 0.18 17.27 ± 0.68 22.80 ± 0.50 21.40 ± 0.20 22.80 ± 0.12 33.27 ± 0.77 16.60 ± 0.12 28.13 ± 0.13 24.33 ± 0.13
Nocardia asteroides Agar 31.40 ± 0.90 14.03 ± 1.32 16.87 ± 0.70 37.33 ± 0.41 13.13 ± 0.33 14.27 ± 0.37 14.73 ± 0.13 35.13 ± 0.59 38.40 ± 0.61 21.87 ± 0.18 8.33 ± 0.44
  Poloxamer 23.60 ± 0.31 11.47 ± 0.07 12.40 ± 0.20 25.60 ± 0.12 13.33 ± 0.68 8.93 ± 0.13 10.33 ± 0.13 27.53 ± 0.18 25.07 ± 0.13 19.47 ± 0.07 0.00 ± 0.00
Staphylococcus aureus Agar 23.73 ± 0.18 18.47 ± 0.55 20.73 ± 0.18 27.13 ± 0.18 30.40 ± 0.95 27.13 ± 1.49 27.07 ± 1.11 33.00 ± 0.64 27.13 ± 0.07 25.67 ± 0.24 14.00 ± 0.76
  Poloxamer 17.73 ± 0.07 13.60 ± 0.31 14.07 ± 0.13 18.60 ± 0.20 14.93 ± 0.37 15.13 ± 0.59 14.73 ± 0.18 23.73 ± 2.03 18.40 ± 0.53 18.80 ± 2.62 5.53 ± 2.78
Staphylococcus aureus NCIMB 12702 Agar 25.87 ± 0.07 24.80 ± 0.12 28.40 ± 0.12 22.60 ± 0.23 27.47 ± 0.27 21.87 ± 0.07 21.60 ± 0.12 32.27 ± 0.18 26.60 ± 0.20 36.47 ± 0.24 31.00 ± 0.00
  Poloxamer 22.33 ± 0.07 22.73 ± 0.07 17.07 ± 6.73 19.20 ± 0.00 16.53 ± 0.07 15.47 ± 0.24 15.53 ± 0.18 29.87 ± 0.07 19.60 ± 0.12 25.73 ± 0.07 20.27 ± 0.27
Staphylococcus citreus Agar NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM
  Poloxamer 24.80 ± 0.00 23.80 ± 0.12 23.73 ± 0.79 17.80 ± 0.35 18.40 ± 0.12 19.93 ± 0.33 21.07 ± 0.07 30.80 ± 0.12 18.00 ± 0.12 26.93 ± 0.13 18.60 ± 0.00
Staphylococcus epidermis Agar 33.07 ± 1.39 34.20 ± 0.53 35.27 ± 0.07 30.60 ± 0.70 30.80 ± 0.23 30.47 ± 1.17 34.00 ± 0.00 39.47 ± 0.27 30.60 ± 0.31 36.20 ± 0.92 33.67 ± 0.66
  Poloxamer 24.53 ± 0.13 24.93 ± 0.07 25.53 ± 0.07 19.93 ± 0.18 15.60 ± 0.83 15.47 ± 0.33 16.07 ± 0.18 28.53 ± 0.68 21.67 ± 0.35 25.13 ± 0.77 19.67 ± 0.35
Staphylococcus hominis Agar NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NNM
  Poloxamer 27.27 ± 0.29 26.87 ± 0.53 27.40 ± 0.20 16.33 ± 0.77 10.87 ± 0.33 18.53 ± 0.37 20.23 ± 0.15 30.87 ± 0.07 17.53 ± 0.13 26.80 ± 0.81 21.53 ± 0.47
Staphylococcus hyicus Agar 34.47 ± 0.53 37.20 ± 0.12 38.60 ± 0.40 30.93 ± 0.13 28.33 ± 0.57 27.27 ± 0.07 28.60 ± 0.61 41.87 ± 0.13 29.00 ± 0.20 37.60 ± 0.00 38.00 ± 0.40
  Poloxamer 25.73 ± 0.07 25.80 ± 0.35 26.73 ± 0.24 21.67 ± 0.18 16.93 ± 0.07 14.40 ± 0.20 15.93 ± 0.07 31.60 ± 0.20 20.67 ± 0.13 27.00 ± 0.20 23.47 ± 0.13
Staphylococcus intermedius Agar 33.00 ± 0.12 25.87 ± 0.07 25.33 ± 0.47 35.00 ± 0.40 28.00 ± 0.20 30.20 ± 0.42 27.40 ± 0.12 40.13 ± 0.41 32.20 ± 0.46 35.13 ± 0.41 9.13 ± 0.07