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Table 1 Mean [± standard error] zones of clearance (mm) around all the antibiotics for Gram negative bacteria [NM – Not measured

From: Evaluating antibiotics for use in medicine using a poloxamer biofilm model

  ANTIBIOTIC
BACTERIA Test Method [mm] Amoxycillin/Clavulanic acid Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ciprofloxacin Clindamycin Erythromycin Erythromycin Imipenem Levofloxacin Meropenem Penicillin G
   30 μg 20 μg 30 μg 5 μg 10 μg 15 μg 30 μg 10 μg 5 μg 10 μg 5 IU
Acinetobacter sp Agar 12.80 ± 1.47 15.33 ± 0.67 15.40 ± 0.81 28.27 ± 0.37 9.53 ± 1.27 15.33 ± 0.75 25.27 ± 0.24 33.67 ± 2.03 27.33 ± 0.94 26.53 ± 0.33 8.93 ± 0.07
  Poloxamer 12.13 ± 0.18 13.07 ± 0.07 13.27 ± 0.18 17.00 ± 0.31 8.20 ± 0.00 9.73 ± 0.35 10.80 ± 0.00 18.80 ± 0.40 17.00 ± 0.00 18.27 ± 0.07 0.00 ± 0.00
Actinobacillus equuli Agar 25.87 ± 0.59 28.27 ± 0.37 29.40 ± 0.60 26.73 ± 0.27 23.40 ± 0.20 20.93 ± 0.59 25.20 ± 0.20 35.47 ± 0.18 27.80 ± 0.20 31.33 ± 0.77 14.87 ± 0.35
  Poloxamer 22.40 ± 0.31 22.80 ± 0.40 23.67 ± 0.18 22.47 ± 0.24 11.27 ± 0.18 8.00 ± 0.12 11.33 ± 0.27 25.53 ± 0.18 23.13 ± 0.24 26.87 ± 0.13 18.20 ± 0.12
Aeromonas hydrophilia Agar 14.07 ± 0.27 0.00 ± 0.00 7.40 ± 0.00 38.60 ± 0.20 7.53 ± 0.13 21.13 ± 0.13 24.07 ± 1.01 17.40 ± 0.12 36.40 ± 0.00 21.53 ± 0.07 7.20 ± 0.00
  Poloxamer 15.87 ± 0.24 7.73 ± 0.13 7.73 ± 0.18 27.80 ± 0.31 9.87 ± 0.13 15.53 ± 0.24 16.80 ± 0.20 16.47 ± 0.27 27.13 ± 0.07 18.00 ± 0.23 0.00 ± 0.00
Bordetella bronchiseptica Agar 31.80 ± 0.20 17.73 ± 0.07 23.40 ± 0.31 32.00 ± 0.31 9.27 ± 0.27 23.93 ± 0.87 26.20 ± 0.23 33.60 ± 0.12 31.87 ± 0.07 46.47 ± 0.24 9.73 ± 0.18
  Poloxamer 22.67 ± 0.57 14.60 ± 0.20 16.67 ± 0.13 26.20 ± 0.53 8.67 ± 0.07 14.47 ± 0.29 15.87 ± 0.07 24.27 ± 0.55 25.67 ± 0.24 29.73 ± 0.07 0.00 ± 0.00
Enterobacter cloacae Agar 10.00 ± 0.12 17.80 ± 0.00 19.27 ± 0.13 32.53 ± 0.29 16.33 ± 0.41 11.40 ± 0.35 11.67 ± 0.07 21.27 ± 0.13 27.20 ± 0.12 33.47 ± 0.71 7.40 ± 0.00
  Poloxamer 9.73 ± 0.18 11.00 ± 0.20 12.20 ± 0.12 21.73 ± 0.13 9.53 ± 0.18 9.40 ± 0.20 10.40 ± 0.12 18.53 ± 0.35 20.40 ± 0.23 22.33 ± 0.13 0.00 ± 0.00
Escherichia coli 0117 Agar 22.67 ± 0.94 23.40 ± 0.23 24.40 ± 0.42 35.13 ± 0.47 28.20 ± 0.23 27.40 ± 1.11 27.67 ± 0.13 28.87 ± 0.24 36.00 ± 0.42 33.60 ± 0.42 10.27 ± 0.44
  Poloxamer 14.93 ± 0.13 15.40 ± 0.31 15.80 ± 0.12 24.07 ± 0.07 9.20 ± 0.23 10.13 ± 0.18 11.87 ± 0.13 18.87 ± 0.29 23.47 ± 0.81 19.40 ± 0.35 0.73 ± 0.73
Escherichia coli 08 Agar 25.00 ± 0.00 22.27 ± 0.47 24.40 ± 1.60 37.93 ± 0.18 18.27 ± 0.27 18.93 ± 0.53 18.80 ± 0.53 30.13 ± 0.64 35.53 ± 0.37 35.47 ± 0.96 7.73 ± 0.35
  Poloxamer 15.20 ± 0.20 16.00 ± 0.12 16.33 ± 0.13 25.40 ± 0.40 7.80 ± 0.31 10.03 ± 0.54 11.80 ± 1.21 20.53 ± 0.18 25.27 ± 0.37 22.20 ± 0.40 0.00 ± 0.00
Escherichia coli 0157 Agar 24.13 ± 0.33 24.73 ± 0.74 26.13 ± 0.41 38.13 ± 0.07 8.80 ± 0.53 17.40 ± 0.31 15.00 ± 0.12 27.67 ± 0.13 34.53 ± 0.13 33.73 ± 0.18 8.07 ± 0.27
  Poloxamer 16.13 ± 0.13 16.33 ± 0.18 17.80 ± 0.20 24.20 ± 0.23 10.27 ± 0.24 10.33 ± 0.18 11.47 ± 0.07 21.07 ± 0.13 21.80 ± 0.12 21.80 ± 0.20 0.00 ± 0.00
E.coli NCIMB12210 Agar 21.80 ± 0.12 21.60 ± 0.00 22.20 ± 0.00 38.20 ± 0.12 9.80 ± 0.23 12.73 ± 0.07 13.60 ± 0.20 30.13 ± 0.07 36.27 ± 0.13 37.93 ± 0.18 NM
  Poloxamer 15.80 ± 0.12 16.47 ± 0.18 17.13 ± 0.24 26.40 ± 0.12 8.40 ± 0.00 11.60 ± 0.23 11.87 ± 0.07 19.93 ± 0.07 23.73 ± 0.27 20.60 ± 0.12 NM
Klebsiella sp Agar 26.67 ± 0.35 21.33 ± 0.13 23.33 ± 0.41 34.27 ± 0.13 7.47 ± 0.18 11.87 ± 0.35 18.07 ± 0.07 28.40 ± 0.50 32.40 ± 0.31 31.07 ± 0.48 7.53 ± 0.33
  Poloxamer 14.60 ± 0.20 13.80 ± 0.12 14.87 ± 0.07 24.27 ± 0.27 7.20 ± 0.00 9.80 ± 0.42 11.93 ± 0.35 18.20 ± 0.31 23.13 ± 0.85 18.87 ± 0.18 0.00 ± 0.00
Morganella morganii Agar 7.67 ± 0.07 15.33 ± 0.07 16.93 ± 0.13 25.20 ± 0.42 12.47 ± 0.18 8.07 ± 0.87 8.40 ± 0.60 19.00 ± 0.23 20.47 ± 0.18 30.33 ± 0.68 7.20 ± 0.00
  Poloxamer 9.00 ± 0.20 11.40 ± 0.31 12.60 ± 0.20 17.07 ± 0.44 7.27 ± 0.07 0.00 ± 0.00 7.20 ± 0.00 17.80 ± 0.12 16.53 ± 0.27 23.27 ± 0.18 0.00 ± 0.00
Proteus vulgaris Agar 24.33 ± 0.33 21.47 ± 0.75 25.60 ± 0.70 41.27 ± 0.64 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 8.73 ± 0.64 22.80 ± 1.31 36.33 ± 0.70 12.53 ± 0.27 17.87 ± 1.10
  Poloxamer 17.33 ± 0.24 17.20 ± 0.60 19.00 ± 0.20 22.87 ± 1.95 11.07 ± 1.27 9.47 ± 0.33 11.47 ± 0.07 15.47 ± 0.35 24.27 ± 0.37 20.93 ± 0.24 13.47 ± 0.27
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agar 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 36.47 ± 0.81 0.00 ± 0.00 13.73 ± 0.53 14.60 ± 1.03 22.60 ± 1.40 27.53 ± 0.87 33.00 ± 0.69 0.00 ± 0.00
  Poloxamer 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 20.87 ± 0.07 0.00 ± 0.00 7.20 ± 0.00 7.80 ± 0.12 16.67 ± 0.35 17.03 ± 0.50 22.20 ± 0.20 0.00 ± 0.00
P. aeruginosa NCIMB 12469 Agar NM NM NM 28.87 ± 0.07 NM 7.20 ± 0.00 7.40 ± 0.00 19.73 ± 0.41 21.60 ± 0.12 28.27 ± 0.24 NM
  Poloxamer NM NM NM 20.73 ± 0.07 NM 6.87 ± 0.07 7.80 ± 0.12 17.40 ± 0.00 17.40 ± 0.00 22.33 ± 0.24 NM