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Table 4 Fungicidal efficacy of benzaldehyde formulations (μg/ml) against individual strains of filamentous fungi examined1.

From: Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

   Compounds alone   
   Cinnamaldehyde o -Vanillin 2-Hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde 2,3-D Thymol Formulation (combined) Fungicidality MFC FORMULATION /MIC FORMULATION
A. fumigatus
AF293
MIC
(FEMIC)
MFC
(FEMFC)
32-64
(8 H)
64-128
(4 H)
32-64
(8 H)
> 128
(8 H)
32-64
(8 H)
> 128
(8 H)
8-16
(2 L)
> 128
(8 H)
> 128 2
(32 H)
N/D 3
(8 H)
4-8
16-32
4 (Fungicidal)4
A. terreus
UAB673
MIC
(FEMIC)
MFC
(FEMFC)
32-64
(8 H)
64-128
(4 H)
32-64
(8 H)
> 128
(8 H)
32-64
(8 H)
> 128
(8 H)
8-16
(2 L)
> 128
(8 H)
> 128
(32 H)
N/D
(8 H)
4-8
16-32
4 (Fungicidal)
A. terreus
UAB680
MIC
(FEMIC)
MFC
(FEMFC)
32-64
(4 H)
64-128
(4 H)
32-64
(4 H)
> 128
(8 H)
32-64
(4 H)
> 128
(8 H)
16-32
(2 L)
> 128
(8 H)
> 128
(16 H)
N/D
(8 H)
8-16
16-32
2 (Fungicidal)
A. terreus
UAB698
MIC
(FEMIC)
MFC
(FEMFC)
32-64
(4 H)
64-128
(4 H)
32-64
(4 H)
> 128
(8 H)
32-64
(4 H)
> 128
(8 H)
32-64
(4 H)
> 128
(8 H)
> 128
(16 H)
N/D
(8 H)
8-16
16-32
2 (Fungicidal)
A. flavus
NRRL3357
MIC
(FEMIC)
MFC
(FEMFC)
32-64
(4 H)
64-128
(4 H)
32-64
(4 H)
> 128
(8 H)
32-64
(4 H)
> 128
(8 H)
64-128
(8 H)
> 128
(8 H)
> 128
(16 H)
N/D
(8 H)
8-16
16-32
2 (Fungicidal)
P. expansum
NRRL974
MIC
(FEMIC)
MFC
(FEMFC)
32-64
(4 H)
32-64
(2 L)
32-64
(4 H)
> 128
(8 H)
32-64
(4 H)
> 128
(8 H)
32-64
(4 H)
> 128
(8 H)
> 128
(16 H)
N/D
(8 H)
8-16
16-32
2 (Fungicidal)
  1. 1 Efficacy of combined compounds compared to each compound alone is expressed as Formulation Efficacy (FEMIC or FEMFC; See Methods). FEMIC, FE for MIC values; FEMFC, FE for MFC values; H (high) if FE ≥ 4, L (low) if 1 < FE < 4; See Methods for calculations. For calculation purposes, higher concentration (μg/ml) of each concentration range was used for FE determination (e.g., 64 from 32 - 64 μg/ml).
  2. 2Assays were conducted up to a highest concentration of 128 μg/ml. For calculation purposes, 256 μg/ml (doubling of 128 μg/ml) was used.
  3. 3ND: Not determined since fungal growth occurred at the highest concentration (128 μg/ml). For calculation purposes, 256 μg/ml was used.
  4. 4Fungicidal or fungistatic effect was determined based on MFCFORMULATION/MICFORMULATION ratio (Fungicidal if ≤ 4, fungistatic if > 4; See Methods for calculations). For calculation purposes, higher concentration (μg/ml) of each MIC or MFC range was used.