Characterization of ESBL (SHV-12) producing clinical isolate of Enterobacter aerogenes from a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria
© Kasap et al. 2010
Received: 14 November 2009
Accepted: 12 January 2010
Published: 12 January 2010
We studied the beta-lactamases of an E. aerogenes isolate recovered from the blood of a two-year-old patient. The isolate demonstrated a disk-diffusion phenotype typical for an AmpC-ESBL co-producer.
Microbiology studies were performed according to standard protocols. The resistance gene was identified by transconjugation and cloning experiments.
By transconjugation only a narrow spectrum beta-lactamase (TEM-1) encoded on a small plasmid was transmitted. The ESBL was cloned and expressed in an E. coli host. Sequence analysis of the recombinant plasmid revealed bla SHV-12 associated to the insertion sequence, IS 26.
This is the first study demonstrated the occurrence of SHV-12 in Nigeria.
Enterobacter species, in particular, E. cloacae and E. aerogenes are able to compromise antibacterial treatment by over expressing the chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase [1, 2]. Emergence and spread of Class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among these species are further complications .
ESBLs confer resistance to expanded-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. The majority of these enzymes are derived by amino acid substitutions from the narrow spectrum precursors, TEM-1, 2 and SHV-1. TEM-type ESBLs generally disseminate on transposons, Tn1, Tn2 and Tn3 . SHV-type ESBLs, on the other hand, are typically associated to IS 26 and disseminate through IS26 dependent mobilization events from the K. pneumoniae chromosome [5, 6]. Eventually, the extended-spectrum derivates of TEM and SHV enzymes are now ubiquitous.
We detected an ESBL producing E. aerogenes clinical isolate from Nigeria. Since, the data in the literature regarding the occurrence and the dissemination of ESBLs in Nigeria is limited [7, 8], we characterized the beta-lactamases of this isolate by microbiological and molecular means
The strain and the susceptibility tests
A strain of Enterobacter aerogenes was isolated and identified by standard methods from the blood of a two-year-old male patient, admitted (8th November 1999) to a tertiary care hospital in a Southwestern city of Nigeria, with clinical diagnosis of febrile convulsion. The case note is, however, not available for the history and outcome of the patient. The strain was identified by API 20E (bioMérieux Marcy l'Etoile, France) according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer.
Disk diffusion test was performed on Mueller-Hinton agar (disks and agar media were from Oxoid, Basingstoke UK) for the phenotypic identification of ESBLs as described elsewhere . Briefly, the cefotaxime (CTX; 30-μg) disk was placed 20 mm away from the amoxicillin (20-μg)-clavulanate (10-μg) (AMC) disk, the ceftazidime (CAZ; 30-μg) disk was placed at 30 mm distance, and the cefepime (FEP; 30-μg) disk was placed at 30 mm distance. For the phenotypic detection of the AmpC enzyme, a cefoxitin (FOX; 30-μg) disk was placed on the agar, as well.
The MICs of key antibiotics were determined by the broth micro-dilution test using Mueller-Hinton Broth (Oxoid, Basingstoke UK) as recommended by CLSI. End-points were interpreted after 18 h of incubation at 37°C. E. coli ATCC 25922 and E. coli DH10B were included as control strains. Powder forms of antibiotics were obtained from local companies: ampicillin (Mustafa Nevzat), piperacillin & tazobactam (Wyeth), clavulanate (DEPA), cefepime (Bristol-Myers Squibb), cefotaxime (Toprak), ceftazidime (Glaxo-SmithKline), imipenem (Merck), meropenem (Astra-Zeneca), ciprofloxacin (Bayer), gentamicin (Bilim) and tobramycin (Nobel). The final concentration of clavulanate was 4 mg L-1.
Plasmids were isolated by the alkaline lysis or the Kado Liu methods , run on 0.8% agarose gels and visualized under UV light. Transconjugation and transformation experiments were performed with E. coli J53-2 (RifR) and electro-competent E. coli DH10B strains as recipients, respectively [11, 12].
DNA & RNA isolation, PCR and RT-PCR
DNA templates for PCR experiments were prepared by simply boiling a dense bacterial suspension in ddH2O and a 10 min of centrifugation at 16.000 × g. DNA-free RNAs were isolated with RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), and run on denaturating gel conditions to check the integrity of RNAs and the lack of visible DNA contamination. cDNAs were immediately synthesized by random hexamer primers with Revert Aid first strand cDNA synthesis kit (Fermentas, Lithuania).
PCR reactions were set in 50 μl final volumes made up of 1× buffer, 1.5 U Taq polymerase (Fermentas, Lithuania), 1.5 mM MgCl2, 0.8 mM dNTPs, 50 pmol primers each. RT-PCR was set up with the same master mixture except, 1× SYBR Green I (Sigma) was added. Reactions were prepared on ice and run on Quantica (Techne) RT-PCR Thermal cycler as described elsewhere . Specificity of the product was assessed by the dissociation curve analysis made by the Quantica software and the relative mobility of the PCR products on the agarose gels.
Primers, ShvF1-5'-ATTACCATgAgCgATAACAg-3' and ShvR1-5'-CATTCAgTTCCgTTTCCC-3' were used (55°C annealing temperature) in RealTime-PCR to amplify a 133 bp fragment internal to bla SHV-12 gene. The primer ShvF1 and the primer DeoRR1-5'-CCAggTggTCACCAATgATT-3' were used (50°C annealing temperature) to amplify a 927 bp fragment which extends from the 3' end of the bla SHV-12 gene to the 402 bp of the transcriptional regulator gene. To amplify the entire sequence (861 bp) of bla TEM gene, the primers TemA-5'-ATgAgTATTCAACAT TTCCgTg-3' and TEMD-5'-TTACCAATgCTTAATCAgTgAg-3' (annealing temp. 52°C) were used.
Crude cell extracts were prepared by sonication. Analytical isoelectric focusing (IEF) was performed on a 5% polyacrylamide gel containing ampholytes (pH range, 3-10; Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA) with a Model 111 Mini IEF Cell (Bio-Rad). SHV-1 (pI 7.6), OXA-14 (pI 6.2) and TEM-1 (pI 5.4) were included as references. Enzymes were focused at a constant 1 W for 45 min and detected by overlaying the gel with 1 mM nitrocefin solution.
Cloning and sequencing
High molecular weight (HMW) genomic DNA was isolated using the procedure described by Chen and Kuo . For plasmid DNA isolation, alkaline lysis method was used (Sambrook and Russell, 2001). Twenty micrograms each of HMW genomic DNA and plasmid DNA were digested with 0.1 units of Bsp 143I (Fermentas) for 20 min at 37°C and 0.5 microgram of the cloning vector, pZero (Invitrogen), was digested with 5 units of Bam HI (Fermentas) for one hour at 37°C. Digested DNA and the vector were phenol/chloroform extracted and compatible arms were ligated overnight at 16°C. Two microliters of ligation mix was then transformed to electrocompetent E. coli DH10B and the recombinant clones were selected on agar plates supplemented with ampicillin (100 mcg/mL) plus zeocin (50 mcg/mL).
Dye terminator cycle sequencing with the ABI Prism BigDye Terminator kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) were used to obtain the sequences. The assay was carried out according to the standardprotocol. Data was collected on an ABI 377 automated fluorescence sequencer.
The isolate, identified as E. aerogenes (Ea N146), exhibited a phenotype by the disk diffusion test that is typical for an AmpC-ESBL co-producer . Briefly, there was no zone around the FOX disk which was specifically caused by the over-expressed AmpC enzyme whereas the zone around the FEB disk was enlarged on the AMC side, indicating the existence of a Class A ESBL.
By transformation we were able to transfer a narrow spectrum enzyme encoded on a <7 kb cryptic plasmid (data not shown) to DH10B recipient (TN146) which was identified as TEM-1 by sequencing on both sides of the PCR product.
The MICs of key antibiotics for SHV-12 producing E. aerogenes (Ea N146), the transformant (TFN146) and the SHV-12 producing clone (CN146)
This study characterized the beta-lactamases from a clinical isolate of E. aerogenes and demonstrated the occurrence of IS 26 associated bla SHV-12 in Nigeria. SHV-12 was first identified in 1997 in Switzerland and later reported from various continents including Africa [16–20]. Reports of SHV-12 producing E. cloacae and Klebsiella blood isolates from Tanzania and Cameroon and now E. aerogenes from Nigeria indicate a high endemicity of SHV-12 possessing Enterobacteriaceae in the Western coast of Africa and therefore attract interest.
SHV-1 is supposed to be a species specific enzyme encoded mainly on the chromosome of K. pneumoniae [5, 21]. Evolutionary analysis of submitted sequences indicated that extended-spectrum variants evolved on two branches from bla SHV-1, both mediated by IS 26 depended mobilization events from the chromosome of K. pneumoniae . These analyses revealed that bla SHV-12evolved from the branch of bla SHV-2a. Indeed, the genes surrounding bla SHV-12 in this study is identical to the genes surrounding bla SHV-2a in several previously submitted sequences (GenBank accession #s: X84314 and X53817). This suggests that bla SHV-12 identified in this study has evolved from bla SHV-2a as supposed by the evolutionary approach .
IS 26 is an 820-bp long insertion sequence that typically generates 8 bp target duplication upon transposition . It is demonstrated for IS 1 that the length of target site duplication sequences may vary according to the sequence of the integrated site . This phenomenon has not been studied for IS 26. In this study we identified a 9 bp direct repeat on the boundaries of a 3002 bp region bearing bla SHV-12 and the DeoR type regulator gene. This 3002 bp region may be a replicating unit.
Data for ESBLs from Nigeria are rare in the literature [7, 8, 23]. In a study by Soge et al., CTX-M-15 producing K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were characterized . In another study, the authors characterized ESBLs by phenotypic means among E. aerogenes .
This is the first study reporting the occurrence and the genetic support of ESBL bla SHV-12 gene in Nigeria.
This study was supported by the Research Fund of Kocaeli University under the grant number of 2007/079.
- Chow JW, Fine MJ, Shlaes DM, Quinn JP, Hooper DC, Johnson MP, Ramphal R, Wagener MM, Miyashiro DK, Yu VL: Enterobacter bacteremia: clinical features and emergence of antibiotic resistance during therapy. Annals of internal medicine 1991, 115: 585–590.PubMed
- Pfaller MA, Jones RN, Marshall SA, Coffman SL, Hollis RJ, Edmond MB, Wenzel RP: Inducible amp C beta-lactamase producing gram-negative bacilli from blood stream infections: frequency, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology in a national surveillance program (SCOPE). Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1997, 28: 211–219.View ArticlePubMed
- Tzelepi E, Giakkoupi P, Sofianou D, Loukova V, Kemeroglou A, Tsakris A: Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes. J Clin Microbiol 2000, 38: 542–546.PubMed
- Partridge SR, Hall RM: Evolution of transposons containing blaTEM genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005, 49: 1267–1268.View ArticlePubMed
- Chaves J, Ladona MG, Segura C, Coira A, Reig R, Ampurdanes C: SHV-1 beta-lactamase is mainly a chromosomally encoded species-specific enzyme in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001, 45: 2856–2861.View ArticlePubMed
- Ford PJ, Avison MB: Evolutionary mapping of the SHV beta-lactamase and evidence for two separate IS26-dependent blaSHV mobilization events from the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosome. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004, 54: 69–75.View ArticlePubMed
- Soge OO, Queenan AM, Ojo KK, Adeniyi BA, Roberts MC: CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum (beta)-lactamase from Nigerian Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006, 57: 24–30.View ArticlePubMed
- Aibinu IE, Ohaegbulam VC, Adenipekun EA, Ogunsola FT, Odugbemi TO, Mee BJ: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase enzymes in clinical isolates of Enterobacter species from Lagos, Nigeria. J Clin Microbiol 2003, 41: 2197–2200.View ArticlePubMed
- Pitout JD, Reisbig MD, Venter EC, Church DL, Hanson ND: Modification of the double-disk test for detection of enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum and AmpC beta-lactamases. J Clin Microbiol 2003, 41: 3933–3935.View ArticlePubMed
- Kado CI, Liu ST: Rapid procedure for detection and isolation of large and small plasmids. Journal of bacteriology 1981, 145: 1365–1373.PubMed
- Vahaboglu H, Budak F, Kasap M, Gacar G, Torol S, Karadenizli A, Kolayli F, Eroglu C: High prevalence of OXA-51-type class D beta-lactamases among ceftazidime-resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp.: co-existence with OXA-58 in multiple centres. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006, 58: 537–542.View ArticlePubMed
- Akhan S, Coskunkan F, Tansel O, Vahaboglu H: Conjugative resistance to tazobactam plus piperacillin among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae. Scand J Infect Dis 2001, 33: 512–515.View ArticlePubMed
- Savli H, Karadenizli A, Kolayli F, Gundes S, Ozbek U, Vahaboglu H: Expression stability of six housekeeping genes: A proposal for resistance gene quantification studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. J Med Microbiol 2003, 52: 403–408.View ArticlePubMed
- Chen WP, Kuo TT: A simple and rapid method for the preparation of gram-negative bacterial genomic DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 1993, 21: 2260.View ArticlePubMed
- Mollet B, Iida S, Shepherd J, Arber W: Nucleotide sequence of IS26, a new prokaryotic mobile genetic element. Nucleic Acids Res 1983, 11: 6319–6330.View ArticlePubMed
- Nuesch-Inderbinen MT, Kayser FH, Hachler H: Survey and molecular genetics of SHV beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in Switzerland: two novel enzymes, SHV-11 and SHV-12. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997, 41: 943–949.PubMed
- Gray KJ, Wilson LK, Phiri A, Corkill JE, French N, Hart CA: Identification and characterization of ceftriaxone resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Malawian bacteraemic Enterobacteriaceae. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006, 57: 661–665.View ArticlePubMed
- Gangoue-Pieboji J, Bedenic B, Koulla-Shiro S, Randegger C, Adiogo D, Ngassam P, Ndumbe P, Hachler H: Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Yaounde, Cameroon. J Clin Microbiol 2005, 43: 3273–3277.View ArticlePubMed
- Blomberg B, Jureen R, Manji KP, Tamim BS, Mwakagile DS, Urassa WK, Fataki M, Msangi V, Tellevik MG, Maselle SY, Langeland N: High rate of fatal cases of pediatric septicemia caused by gram-negative bacteria with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Clin Microbiol 2005, 43: 745–749.View ArticlePubMed
- Ben-Hamouda T, Foulon T, Ben-Mahrez K: Involvement of SHV-12 and SHV-2a encoding plasmids in outbreaks of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Tunisian neonatal ward. Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, NY) 2004, 10: 132–138.View Article
- Babini GS, Livermore DM: Are SHV beta-lactamases universal in Klebsiella pneumoniae? Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000, 44: 2230.View ArticlePubMed
- Machida C, Machida Y: Base substitutions in transposable element IS1 cause DNA duplication of variable length at the target site for plasmid co-integration. EMBO J 1987, 6: 1799–1803.PubMed
- Iregbu KC, Elegba OY, Babaniyi IB: Bacteriological profile of neonatal septicaemia in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. African health sciences 2006, 6: 151–154.PubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.