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Table 2 Characteristics and alternative diagnoses of Rift Valley Fever manifestations

From: The challenging management of Rift Valley Fever in humans: literature review of the clinical disease and algorithm proposal

RVF manifestationsTime of onsetFrequencyLethalitySequelaeDifferential infectious diagnoses
Influenza-like syndrome2 to 6 days of incubation50–90% of infected peopleProlonged astheniaArboviruses, influenza virus, HIV (primary infection)
Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella spp., bacterial sepsis
Malarial parasites
Acute hepatitisDay 2–211–2% of symptomatic casesHigh in icteric hepatitisNoneEBV, CMV, HIV, hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D, E, arboviruses (yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya)
Mycoplasma, Leptospirosa spp., Coxiella burnetii, Brucella, Bartonella, Babesia, Pneumococcus, Clostridium perfringens
Malarial parasites
Hemorrhagic feverDay 2–14 (day 2–4)1–25% of symptomatic cases25–65%NoneHemorrhagic viral fevers, Leptospira spp.
Ocular signsDay 4–200.5–15% of symptomatic casesReduced or lost visionMeasles, rubella, influenza, CMV, HSV, VZV, West Nile, chikungunya, dengue and various encephalitis viruses
Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum
Acute encephalitisDay 2–10< 1% of symptomatic cases50%Neurologic disordersEnteroviruses, measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, rabies viruses, arboviruses (West-Nile, dengue, regional encephalitis), HIV
Listeria, Rickettsia, Treponema pallidum, Brucella, Borrelia, Leptospirosa spp., Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, ±bacterial meningitis (meningococcal, pneumococcal)
Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Echinococcus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma capsulatum
Delayed encephalitisDay 4– 601–5% of symptomatic cases< 50%Neurologic disorders
  1. HIV human immunodeficiency virus, EBV Epstein Barr virus, CMV cytomegalovirus, HSV herpes simplex viruses, VZV varicella zoster virus