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Table 2 Lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir pharmacokinetic parameters in HIV-1-infected patients who used combination lopinavir/ritonavir twice daily with rifabutin 150 mg three times per week or rifabutin 300 mg three times per week

From: Pharmacokinetics of plasma lopinavir and ritonavir in tuberculosis–HIV co-infected African adult patients also receiving rifabutin 150 or 300 mg three times per week

Pharmacokinetic parametersLopinavir 400 mg pharmacokinetic profile when used with RBT 150 mg or 300 mgRitonavir 100 mg pharmacokinetic profile when used with RBT 150 mg or 300 mg
LPV/RTV (400 mg/100 mg) twice daily with RBT 150 mg TPW (n = 9) (median and IQR)LPV/RTV (400 mg/100 mg) twice daily with RBT 300 mg TPW (n = 7) (median and IQR)p valueLPV/RTV (400 mg/100 mg) twice daily with RBT 150 mg TPW (n = 9) (median and IQR)LPV/RTV (400 mg/100 mg) twice daily with RBT 300 mg TPW (n = 7) (median and IQR)P value
C0 (µg/mL)13 (7.5–18.3)5.8 (0.01–6.6)0.0442.1 (1.8–3.1)1.6 (0.4–2.3)0.914
C12 (µg/mL)10 (8.1–16.1)4.6 (4.1–7.3)0.1701.7 (1.1–2.8)0.6 (0.6–0.7)0.265
Cmax (µg/mL)20 (11.5–21.4)7.7 (5–19.5)1.0002.7 (1.9–3.1)1.5 (0.9–2.4)0.313
Tmax (h)4 (3–4)3 (2–6)1.0003 (2–4)2 (2–4)0.313
CL (L/kg/h)0.08 (0.05–0.10)0.14 (0.09–0.18)0.3130.16 (0.11–0.180.29 (0.15–0.54)0.313
AUC0–12h111.8 (67.4–150.4)69.9 (38.4–104.8)0.31312.7 (10.8–18.5)6.6 (4.6–12.2)0.313
  1. Data are presented as the medians with the range in parentheses
  2. RBT rifabutin, TPW three times per week, LPV/RTV lopinavir/ritonavir, CTn drug plasma concentration at the specified time, IQR interquartile range, Cmax maximum (peak) plasma drug concentration, Tmax time to reach maximum (peak) plasma concentration following drug administration, C0 plasma drug concentration before the morning dose; C12 plasma drug concentration before the evening dose (12 h post-dose), AUC0–12h area under the plasma concentration–time curve within the time span t0 to t12