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Table 2 Effectiveness of different variables at correctly predicting a diagnosis of bacterial vs. aseptic meningitis

From: Point-of-care cerebrospinal fluid Gram stain for the management of acute meningitis in adults: a retrospective observational study

  Sensitivity Specificity Accuracy LR +  LR− AUC (95% CI)
Age and history
 Age≥45 73.5 89.7 85.5 7.1 0.30 0.82 (0.73–0.90)
 Immunocompromised host 50.0 91.2 80.9 6.1 0.54 0.71 (0.62–0.80)
 Shaking chills 26.5 93.8 76.3 4.3 0.78 0.60 (0.52–0.68)
Vital signs and physical examinations
 Glasgow Coma Scale < 15 81.2 97.9 93.7 38.2 0.19 0.90 (0.83–0.97)
 Pulse rate≥100(/min) 76.4 80.0 79.1 3.8 0.29 0.78 (0.70–0.86)
 Systolic BP≥120(mmHg) 85.3 61.1 67.4 2.2 0.24 0.73 (0.65–0.81)
 Respiratory rate≥22(/min) 64.7 73.9 71.4 2.5 0.48 0.69 (0.60–0.79)
 Neck stiffness 84.9 50.5 59.4 1.7 0.30 0.68 (0.60–0.76)
 Body temperature≥38.0(℃) 69.7 61.1 63.3 1.8 0.50 0.65 (0.56–0.75)
PCGS and laboratory data
 CSF PCGS 91.2 99.0 97.0 88.4 0.09 0.95 (0.90–1.00)
 CSF monocyte≤20(%) 85.3 83.3 83.9 5.1 0.18 0.84 (0.77–0.91)
 CSF glucose/blood glucose ratio≤0.5 85.3 75.5 78.1 3.5 0.20 0.80 (0.73–0.88)
 WBC≥10,000(/μL) 78.8 76.8 77.3 3.4 0.28 0.78 (0.70–0.86)
 CSF protein≥100(mg/dL) 76.5 77.3 77.1 3.4 0.30 0.77 (0.69–0.85)
 CRP≥1.0(mg/dL) 77.4 76.0 76.4 3.2 0.30 0.77 (0.68–0.85)
 CSF cell≥100(/μL) 76.5 58.8 63.4 1.9 0.40 0.68 (0.59–0.76)
  1. AUC area under curve, BP blood pressure, CI confidence interval, CRP C-reactive protein, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, LR likelihood ratio, PCGS point-of-care Gram stain, WBC white blood cell