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Table 1 Maternal GBS colonization by demography and obstetric characteristics including multivariable analysis, Northwest Ethiopia (n = 385)

From: Streptococcus agalactiae from Ethiopian pregnant women; prevalence, associated factors and antimicrobial resistance: alarming for prophylaxis

Socio-demography Classification GBS+, n′ = 98, n (%) GBS−, n = 287, n (%) CORa; 95% CI AORb, 95% CIc p-value
Age (years) median = 25 years < 25 74 (24.9) 223 (75.1) 1
  ≥ 25 24 (27.3) 64 (72.7) 1.130 (0.660, 1.935)
Residence Urban 77 (24.1) 242 (75.9) 1
Rural 21 (31.8) 45 (68.2) 0.626 (0.353, 1.109)
Education Illiterate 30 (34.5) 57 (65.5) 0.550 (0.212, 1.426)
Primary 21 (16.0) 110 (84.0) 1.689 (0.640, 4.459)
Secondary 40 (29.2) 97 (70.8) 0.738 (0.293, 1.857)
Tertiary 7 (23.3) 23 (76.7) 1
Occupation House wife 72 (25.2) 214 (74.8) 1
Employed 21 (28.4) 53 (71.6) 0.849 (0.479, 1.504)
Othersd 5 (20.0) 20 (80.0) 1.346 (0.487, 3.716)
Gestational age (week) < 37 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 0.681 (0.061, 7.590)
≥ 37 97 (25.4) 285 (74.6) 1
Parity Multipara 54 (27.6) 142 (72.4) 0.798 (0.504, 1.265)
Nullipara 44 (23.3) 145 (76.7) 1
History of still birth No 94 (25.6) 273 (74.4) 1
Yes 4 (22.2) 14 (77.8) 1.205 (0.387, 3.752)
History of abortion No 92 (26.1) 260 (73.9) 1
Yes 6 (18.2) 27 (81.8) 1.592 (0.637, 3.980)
History of neonatal death No 93 (24.7) 283 (75.3) 1
Yes 5 (55.6) 4 (44.4) 0.263 (0.063, 1.000)
Gravidity Primigravida 42 (22.8) 142 (77.2) 1
Multigravida 56 (27.9) 145 (72.1) 0.766 (0.482, 1.216)
Antenatal care (ANC) visit 0–3 31 (25.0) 93 (75.0) 0.973 (0.596, 1.588)
4–5 67 (25.7) 194 (74.3) 1
Contraceptive use No 12 (17.6) 56 (82.4) 1
Yes 86 (27.1) 231 (72.9) 0.576 (0.294, 1.126)
Meconium stained amniotic fluid No 92 (27.4) 244 (72.6) 1 1  
Yes 6 (12.2) 43 (87.8) 2.229 (0.966, 5.139) 3.018 (1.225, 7.437) 0.016
History of preterm delivery No 95 (25.1) 284 (74.9) 1
Yes 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 0.337 (0.067, 1.697)
Chronic illness at current pregnancy No 90 (24.8) 273 (75.2) 1
Yes 8 (36.4) 14 (63.6) 0.905 (0.344, 2.382)
ROMe ≤ 1 h 74 (27.6) 194 (72.4) 1 1  
> 1 h 24 (21.1) 90 (78.9) 1.313 (0.781, 2.378) 1.897 (1.014, 3.417) 0.033
Duration of labor (hour) 4–12 81 (25.6) 235 (74.4) 1
13–24 17 (24.6) 52 (75.4) 1.054 (0.577, 1.927)
HIV status Negative 94 (25.3) 278 (74.7) 1
Positive 4 (30.8) 9 (69.2) 0.761 (0.229, 2.528)
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p-value (p < 0.05)
  2. aCrude odds ratio
  3. bAdjusted odds ratio
  4. cConfidence interval
  5. dStudent, daily laborer
  6. eRupture of membrane