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Table 2 Types of carbapenems resistant genes carried by A. baumannii collected from various clinical specimens of patients at Saudi Arabia hospitals

From: Prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii in Saudi Arabia: risk factors, antimicrobial resistance patterns and mechanisms of carbapenem resistance

Region Refs. Year of sampling Specimens Sources of isolates Setting No. of carbapenems resistant isolates Types of carbapenems genes (%)
Across KSA [37] 2006–2007 Sputum, urine, blood, ulcer Inpatients and outpatients with DM Different hospital wards 20 blaOXA-51 (45); blaOXA-131 (20)
Across KSA [6] 2008–2011 Blood, respiratory, urine, wound Inpatients ICUs 196 A blaVIM (93); blaOXA-23 (55); blaOXA-40 (30); ISAba1-blaOXA-51 (4)
Across KSA [16] 2012 Respiratory, blood, urine, abdomen, skin Inpatients with DM ICUs 64 blaVIM (92.2); blaOXA-23 (53.1); blaOXA-40 (29.7); blaSPM (28.1)
Across KSA [73] 2012 Respiratory, skin, wound, urine Inpatients Different hospital wards 79 OXA-51 (100); OXA-23 (97.5); OXA-72 (2.5); NDM-1 (1.2); OXA-23+NDM-1 (1.2)
Aseer [63] 2013–2014 Tracheal aspirate, sputum, wound and urine Inpatients Different hospital wards 56 blaOXA-23 (85.7); blaOXA-40 (5.4); blaOXA-58 (3.6);
Eastern region [12] 2010–2012 Respiratory, wound, urine Inpatients and outpatients Different hospital wards and adult ICU 46 blaOXA-23 (80.4); blaOXA-51 (2.2)
Eastern region [74] 2008–2012 Various clinical specimensb Inpatients Different hospital wards 57 blaOXA-23 (58); blaOXA-40 (13); blaVIM (94)
Eastern region [27] 2014 Rectal swab Inpatients ICUs 35 OXA-23 (100)
Eastern region [61] 2014 Sputum, blood, wound, nasal swab, pus swab Inpatients and outpatients Different hospital wards 10 blaOXA-23 (10); blaNDM-1 (30)
Eastern region [68] NM Sputum, throat, abdomen, catheter and endotracheal aspirates Inpatients ICUs 5 OXA-23 (100)
Madinah [55] NM Wound, sputum, urine, blood Inpatients and outpatients Different hospital wards 48 VIM-1 gene (37.9)
Makkah [17] 2012–2014 Blood, and skin wound Inpatients ICUs 100a OXA-51-like (94); OXA-23-like (91)
Riyadh [53] 2011 NM Inpatients Different hospital wards 55 blaOXA-23 (60.0); blaPER (49.1); blaGES (34.5); blaOXA-24 (3.6)
Riyadh [50] 2006–2008 Respiratory, wound and burn, blood, urine and other samples Inpatients Different hospital wards 253 OXA-23 (100); OXA-51 (100); OXA-58 (1.6)
Riyadh [18] 2012 Tracheal aspirate Inpatients Adults ICU 12 OXA-51 (100); OXA-23 (91.7); OXA-24/40 (8.3)
Riyadh [2] 2006–2014 Respiratory, wound and burn, blood, urine, and others samples Inpatients Different hospital wards 503 OXA-51-like (90.8); PER-1 (76.3)
Riyadh [52] 2010 Various clinical specimensb Inpatients Different hospital wards 27 OXA-23 (63); OXA-24/40 (3.7); ADC (96.3); GES-1 (18.5); GES-11 (11); GES-5 (3.7)
Riyadh-Khobar [33] 2011–2013 Blood, sputum, urine, respiratory, body fluid Inpatients and outpatients Different hospital wards 80 OXA-51 (100); OXA-23 (93)
  1. ICU intensive care unit, KSA Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, NM not mentioned
  2. aIsolates were positive for extended spectrum beta lactamases
  3. bTypes of clinical specimens were not specified in the study