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Table 1 Resistance rates of A. baumannii to different antimicrobial classes collected from hospitals of different geographical areas in Saudi Arabia

From: Prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii in Saudi Arabia: risk factors, antimicrobial resistance patterns and mechanisms of carbapenem resistance

Area Region Refs. Year of survey Penicillins Cephalosporin’s Carbapenems
AMC PIP PIP-TAZ CFN CFM CAZ CTX AZO IMP MER
Central Qassim [47] 2011 42 67 89 9
Qassim [49] 2014–2015 100 100 100
Riyadh [50] 2006–2008 98.8 99.2 79.1 92.1
Riyadh [2] 2006–2014 96.9 96.2 95.4 76.9 88.5
Riyadh [51] 2009 96 93 88 83 89 91
Riyadh [52] 2010 78 78 78 89 89
Riyadh [53] 2011 100 100 100 63.6  
Riyadh [18] 2006 75 36 19
2012 83 91.7 89
Riyadh [35] 2013–2015 67.7 91.9 72.7 81.8
West Jeddah [54] 2012 27 25 66
Jeddah [1] 1999–2000 71 60 59 66 81 15
Makkah and Jeddah [31] 2011 93.1 72.2 69.4 75 80.5 62.5
Madinah [55] 2014 93.7 70.8 100 100 95.8
Madinah [22] 6 month 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Makkah [56] 2004–2005 87 73 8 92 45 79 90 14
Makkah [57] 2005–2006 92.9 97.9 86.9 83.3 95.3 45.9 28
Makkah [58] 2015 77 77 100 90 64
East Dammam [12] 2010–2012 33.3 73.8 85.1 32.6 33.3
Dammam [27] 2014   100
Dammam and Dhahran [59] 1998–2004 89 38 3
Dammam and Khobar [60] 2015 67.7 71 87
Dammam [61] 2014 100 100 100 100 100
South Aseer [62] 2011–2012 39 3
Aseer [63] 2013–2014 81.5 89.8 51.9 50
Aseer [19] 2014–2015 97.1 96.6 92.7 97.8 92 95.5 100
Najran [25] 2012–2013 32.4 45.6 91.2 7.4 1.5
  1. AK amikacin, AMC amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, AZO aztreonam, CAZ ceftazidime, CFM cefepime, CFN cefoxitin, CIP ciprofloxacin, CL colistin, CTX cefotaxime, CXM cefuroxime, GN gentamicin, IMI imipenem, MERO meropenem, PIP-TAZO piperacillin–tazobactam, SXT trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, TIG tigecycline, TOB tobramicin
Area Region Refs. Year of survey Aminoglycosides CIP SXT CL TIG
AK GN TOB
Central Qassim [47] 2011 63 51 90 66
Qassim [49] 2014–2015 80 90.9 100 100
Riyadh [50] 2006–2008 58.1 96.4 41.5 99.6 84.4 3.0
Riyadh [2] 2006–2014 56.9 93.8 40 96.2 99.2 1.5
Riyadh [51] 2009 86 80 92 56 0.0 43
Riyadh [52] 2010 37 52 93 30 56
Riyadh [53] 2011 40 94.5   45.5
Riyadh [18] 2006 71 54 0.0
2012 83 89.2 0.0
Riyadh [35] 2013–2015 72.7 54.5 91.9
West Jeddah [54] 2012 34 57 27 8
Jeddah [1] 1999–2000 74 56 38 54
Makkah and Jeddah [31] 2011 40.3 51.4 69.4 72.2
Madinah [55] 2014 89.6 81.2 100
Madinah [22] 6 month 89 94.5 94.5 93.3 0.0
Makkah [56] 2004–2005 75 72 77 76
Makkah [57] 2005–2006 84.2 76.2 56.5 75.4
Makkah [58] 2015 67 46 50 83
East Dammam [12] 2010–2012 27 54.6 69.5 63.1 0.0 30
Dammam [27] 2014 40 62.9 100 0.0 51.4
Dammam and Dhahran [59] 1998–2004 34 26 25 30 23
Dammam and Khobar [60] 2015 25.8 29 74.2 0.0
Dammam [61] 2014 90 80 50 100 0.0 80
South Aseer [62] 2011–2012 33 25 24 30 0.0
Aseer [63] 2013–2014 75 81.5 79.6 82.9 65.7 4.6
Aseer [19] 2014–2015 83.7 94.5 93.2 93.9 25.5 0.0
Najran [25] 2012–2013 41.2 60.3 45.6 77.9 0.0
  1. AK amikacin, AMC amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, AZO aztreonam, CAZ ceftazidime, CFM cefepime, CFN cefoxitin, CIP ciprofloxacin, CL colistin, CTX cefotaxime, CXM cefuroxime, GN gentamicin, IMI imipenem, MERO meropenem, PIP-TAZO piperacillin–tazobactam, SXT trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, TIG tigecycline, TOB tobramicin