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Table 3 Clinical and bacteriological findings in cases with positive result from either NGS or conventional methods (blood and catheter tip culture)

From: Detection of bacterial DNA from central venous catheter removed from patients by next generation sequencing: a preliminary clinical study

No. Age Sex BT Skin redness Bacteria detected by each method Final diagnosis Defervescence time (day) Antibiotic treatment after the catheter removal Outcome
NGS (the genera or families account for more than 10% of the leads) Blood culture Catheter tip culture Other cultures
CRI suspected group
 NGS positive
  6 76 F 36.1 Yes Serratia NA Serratia marcescens NA CRI CMZ Cure
  13 59 M 37.6 No Staphylococcus NA Negative NA SSI 2 CPFX Cure
  26 59 M 37.0 No Staphylococcus Negative Negative NA SSI 1 FOM Cure
  30 76 M 40.0 Yes Staphylococcus Staphylococcus epidermidis Staphylococcus epidermidis NA CRI 4 PIPC/TAZ Cure
  92 40 F 35.9 No Enterococcaceae Negative Negative NA SSI LVFX Cure
  107 74 F 37.0 No Enterococcaceae Negative Negative Enterococcus faecalis (drain culture) SSI 1 IPM/CS Cure
  114 65 F 38.7 No Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacteriaceae Negative Klebsiella pneumoniae NA CRI 1 CEZ Cure
  135 61 M 39.0 No Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus NA CRI 13 VCM Deatha
  143 62 M 37.0 No Staphylococcus Negative Negative NA SSI 1 LVFX Cure
 NGS negative
  112 62 M 37.5 Yes Negative Staphylococcus epidermidis Negative NA CRI 1 VCM Cure
Routine removal group
 NGS positive
  31 80 F 36.4 No Staphylococcus NAb NA NA Post infection (DNAemia) No
  54 70 M 36.3 No Staphylococcus NA NA NA Contamination No
  88 65 F 36.6 No Staphylococcus NA NA NA Contamination No
  104 82 F 35.9 No Staphylococcus NA NA NA Contamination No
  154 52 M 36.8 No Staphylococcus NA NA NA Contamination No
  1. BT body temperature, NA not applicable, CEZ cefazolin, CMZ cefmetazole, CPFX ciprofloxacin, FOM fosfomycin, IPM/CS imipenem/cilastatin, LVFX levofloxacin, PIPC/TAZ piperacillin/tazobactam, VCM vancomycin
  2. aAlthough the symptom temporarily improved after catheter removal, CRI finally led to a fatal outcome. An autopsy examination revealed S. aureus bacteraemia
  3. bStaphylococcus capitis was identified 9 days before catheter removal. The catheter was, nevertheless, inserted due to therapeutic requirements