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Table 3 The choices of prophylactic antibiotics for perioperative surgical incision

From: Application of antimicrobial drugs in perioperative surgical incision

Operation name Incision type Potential pathogens Antimicrobial agents
Ophthalmic surgery I, II Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) Tobramycin or levofloxacin in topical application
Amputation I, II S. aureus, CNS, Streptococcus (Strep), Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), Anaerobic bacteria (AB) (First or second generation) cephalosporin (Cepha) ± metronidazole (MNZ)
Cerebral surgery (through the nasal sinuses, nasal cavities and oropharynx) II S. aureus, Strep, oropharyngeal AB (e.g., Peptostreptococcus) Cepha ± MNZ, or clindamycin + gentamicin (C + G)
Head and neck surgery (through the oropharynx mucosa) II S. aureus, Strep, oropharyngeal AB (e.g., peptostreptococcus) Cepha ± MNZ, or C + G
Otorhinolaryngologic surgery II S. aureus, CNS Cepha ± MNZ
Thoracic surgery II S. aureus, CNS, Strep pneumoniae, GNB Cepha ± MNZ
Urology surgery (entering the urinary tract vaginal) II GNB Cepha or fluoroquinolones
Urology surgery (involving intestinal tract) II GNB, AB Cepha or aminoglycosides (AG) + MNZ
Urology surgery (with prosthesis implantation) II Staphylococcus, GNB Cepha + AG, or vancomycin
Hysterectomy II GNB, Enterococcus, Group B Streptococci (GBS), AB Cepha (plus MNZ in vaginal surgery), or cephamycin
Laparoscopic myomectomy (using uterine manipulator) II GNB, Enterococcus, GBS, AB Cepha ± MNZ, or cephamycin
Premature rupture of amniotic membrane or cesarean section II GNB, Enterococcus spp., GBS, AB Cepha ± MNZ
Artificial abortion—curettage odinopoeia II GNB, Enterococcus spp., GBS, AB Cepha ± MNZ, or doxycycline
Flap transfer or skin grafting II S. aureus, CNS, Strep, GNB Cepha
Implantation of external fixator II Staphylococcus aureus, CNS, Strep Cepha
Open fracture internal fixation II Staphylococcus aureus, CNS, Strep, GNB, anaerobic bacteria Cepha ± MNZ
Hepatic, biliary, and pancreatic surgery II, III CNS, AB Cepha or ceftriaxone ± MNZ, or cephamycin
Stomach, duodenum, small intestine surgery II, III CNS, Strep, oropharyngeal AB Cepha or cephamycin
Colon, rectum, appendectomy II, III CNS, AB Cepha or ceftriaxone ± MNZ, or cephamycin
Repair of perineal laceration II, III GNB, Enterococcus, GBS, AB Cepha or ceftriaxone ± MNZ
  1. ± That two or more drugs can used in combination or not in combination