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Table 1 Study definition of urinary tract infections (UTIs)

From: High fluoroquinolone MIC is associated with fluoroquinolone treatment failure in urinary tract infections caused by fluoroquinolone susceptible Escherichia coli

To be diagnosed of UTI, an eligible subject must meet both criterion 1 and criterion 2
Criterion 1 Having a positive urine culture ≥ 105 cfu/mL, with no more than two species of microorganism
Criterion 2 At least one of the following
 ICD-9 code of signs and symptoms of UTIs
 Dipstick test positive for leukocyte esterase and/or nitrate
 Pyuria (≥ 10 white blood cells (wbc)/mm3 or ≥ 3 wbc/high power field of unspun urine)
 Physician diagnosis of a urinary tract infection (ICD-9 code)
  599.0 Urinary tract infection, site not specified
  590.x Infection of kidney
  595.0 Acute cystitis
  597.x Urethritis, not sexually transmitted diseases