Skip to main content

Table 2 Medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Pakistan

From: Ethnomedicines and anti-parasitic activities of Pakistani medicinal plants against Plasmodia and Leishmania parasites

S. no Botanical name/family name Common and or local name (s) Area Part used Phytochemistry Citation
1 Acacia nilotica L. (Delile)/Leguminosae (= Fabaceae) Kikar Mardan Leaves Terpenoids [72]
2 Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham./Lamiaceae (= Ajugabracteosa Wall ex Benth./Labiatae) Rati buti Maradori valley Leaves NA [73]
3 Allium cepa L./Amaryllidaceae (= Liliaceae) Piaz Bannu Bulb NA [74]
4 Artemisia annua L./Compositae (= Asteraceae) Afsantin jari, Sweet Wormwood Northern areas Whole plant Artemisinin [75]
Maradori valley Root [75]
5 Artemisia japonica Thunb./Compositae (= Asteraceae) Barmar, Basna Tashang Northern areas Whole plant Artemisinin [75]
6 Artemisia maritime L./Compositae (= Asteraceae) Tarkh, Zoon, Rooner Northern areas Whole plant Artemisinin [75]
7 Artemisia scoparia Waldst. and Kitam./Compositae (= Asteraceae) Lungi booti Bhimber Flowering shoots Artemisinin [76]
8 Azadirachta indica A.Juss./Meliaceae Neem D. I. Khan Seeds, Leaves Limonoid (gedunin) [73]
9 Bupleurum longicaule Wall.ex DC./Apiaceae Proshi Maradori valley Root NA [73]
10 Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand./Apocynaceae (= Asclepiadaceae) Sodom apple, Mudar, Milk weed Cholistan desert Root Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Nitrogen, Crude protein, Crude fiber, Soluble phosphates [77]
Karachi [16]
11 Capparis spinosa L./Capparidaceae Kaveer Chitral Flowers NA [78]
12 Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague/Apiaceae (= CarumcopticumL./Umbelliferae) Ajwain Quetta Whole plant NA [48]
13 Datura stramoniumL./Solanaceae Jimson weed Faisalabad Leaves Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannic acid, vitamin C, steroids [79]
14 Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq./Sapindaceae Ghwarasky Allai valley Seeds NA [80]
15 Enicostemma hyssopifolium Willd./
Gentianaceae
Chhota Chirayata, Nagajihva Karachi Whole plant NA [16]
16 Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh./Myrtaceae River red gum Karachi Leaves, stem NA [16]
17 Fagonia creticaL./Zygophyllaceae Azghakey Mardan Leaves Terpenoids [72]
18 Helianthus annuus L./Compositae (= Asteraceae) Maera stargay gul, Sunflower Bannu Leaves NA [74]
19 Melia azedarach L./Meliaceae Neem, Chinaberry
Tree
Islamabad Green fruits Phenols [19]
20 Moringa oleifera Lam./Moringaceae Sajna, Marango, Moonja Faisalabad Whole plant NA [81]
21 Nerium oleander L./Apocynaceae Adelfa, Rose bay Faisalabad Leaves Alkaloids [79]
22 Origanum majorana L./Lamiaceae Sweet marjoram Faisalabad Aerial parts NA [36]
23 Origanum vulgare L./Lamiaceae Satar, Pot marjoram Faisalabad Aerial parts NA [36]
24 Peganum harmala L./Nitrariaceae (= Zygophyllaceae) Harmal Northern areas Seeds β-carboline alkaloid (isoharmine), harmaline, harmine [82]
25 Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All./Asparagaceae Worlds Solomon’s seal Swat Aerial parts α-Bulnesene, Linalyl, acetate, eicosadienoic, docosane, pentacosane, piperitone [83]
26 Psidium guajava L./Myrtaceae Amrood Mardan Leaves Terpenoids [72]
27 Swertia chirata Roxb ex./Gentianaceae Chirata D. I. Khan Seeds Glycosides:
Amarogentin, amaroswerin, sweroside
[69]
28 Swertia paniculataWall./Gentianaceae Momera Allaivalley Whole plant NA [80]
29 Tagete sminuta L./Compositae(= Asteraceae) Marigold Northern areas, Abbotabad Seeds Terpenoids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids [45, 84]
30 Viburnum nervosumD. Don/Caprifoliaceae (= Adoxaceae) NA Azad Jammu Kashmir Whole plant Butilinol, oleanolic acid, butilinic acid, urosolic acid,α-amyrin, β-sitosterol [85]
31 Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali &Khatoon/Apocynaceae (= Asclepiadaceae) NA Quetta Whole plant NA [48]
32 Viola odorata L./Violaceae Banafsha Maradori valley Whole plant NA [73]
33 Xanthium strumarium L./Compositae (= Asteraceae) Desi Arinad Allai valley Leaves NA [80]
  1. NA indicates data not available