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Table 1 Medicinal plants used to treat leishmaniasis in Pakistan

From: Ethnomedicines and anti-parasitic activities of Pakistani medicinal plants against Plasmodia and Leishmania parasites

S. no Botanical name/family name Common and or local/name (s) Part used Area Phytochemistry Citation
1 Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f./Xanthorrhoeaceae(= Aloe barbadense Mill./Liliaceae) Kuwargandal, Aloe vera Leaves Dera Ismail Khan Sitosterol [61]
Kohat [25, 57]
2 Asparagus gracilis L./Asparagaceae Shagandal Aerial parts Islamabad Glycosides, tannins, saponins [22]
3 Asparagus asiaticus L./Berberidaceae (= Berberis baluchistanica Ahrendt.) Zarch Roots Kalat Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, diterpenes, phenols [62]
4 Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague/Apiaceae (= Carumcopticum L./Umbelliferae) Ajwain Whole plant Quetta NA [48]
5 Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad/Cucurbitaceae Bitter apple, Kortuma Fruits Nushki Ursolic acid, cucurbitacin E 2-0-β-D-glucopyranoside and cucurbitacin I 2-0-β-D-glucopyranoside, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, diterpenes, coumarins [35]
6 Juniperus M.Bieb./Cupressaceae Juniper Fresh berries Ziarat Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, diterpenes, phenols [37]
7 Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss./Compositae Nazar zela Roots Kohistan Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, phenols [22]
8 Melia azedarach L./Meliaceae Neem, Chinaberry tree, Persian lilac Green fruits Islamabad Phenols [21]
9 Nepeta praetervisa Rech.f./Lamiaceae Simsok Leaves Kalat Carbohydrate, tannins, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, diterpenes, quinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, triterpenoids, coumarins [63]
10 Onosma griffithii Vatke./Boraginaceae Golden drop Whole Plant Malakand NA [64]
11 Perotis hordeiformisNees ex Hook. &Arn./Poaceae Kikuyu grass Leaves Soorab Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, diterpenes, phenols [65]
12 Physalis minima L./Solanaceae Pygmy Ground cherry, Gooseberry Whole plant Karachi Physalins [66]
13 Rhazya stricta Decne./Apocynaceae Aizwarg Leaves Nushki Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, diterpenes, phenols [34]
14 Salvia bucharica Popov./Lamiaceae Sage, Gul-e-Kakar Leaves Quetta NA [67]
15 Sarcococca wallichii Stapf/Buxaceae (= Sarcococca coriacea Mull. Arg.) NA Roots Karachi Steroidal alkaloids [68]
16 Sarcococca hookeriana Baill./Buxaceae Sweet box Whole plant Karachi Steroidal alkaloids [66]
17 Sida cordata L. (Burm.f.) Borss. Waalk./Malvaceae Simak Whole plant Islamabad Phenols, saponins, flavonoids [22]
18 Stellaria media L. Vill./Caryophyllaceae Gander Whole plant Islamabad Glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenoids [22]
19 Swertia chirata Roxb ex./Gentianaceae Chirata Seeds D. I. Khan Amarogentin, amaroswerin, sweroside [69]
20 Tamarix aphylla (L.) H.Karst./Tamaricaceae Ghaz, Tamarisk, Salt cedar Barks Kohat NA [25]
21 Thuspeinanta brahuica (Boiss.) Briq./Lamiaceae NA Leaves Kalat Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, diterpenes [70]
22 Tylophora hirsute Wight/Apocynaceae (= Asclepiadaceae) Damvel Aerial parts Malakand NA [71]
  1. NA indicates data not available