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Table 3 Factors associated with ESBL-PE fecal carriage in healthy children in Lebanese community

From: Prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy children and associated risk factors

Characteristic Total
N (%)
ESBL+
N (%)
ESBL−
N (%)
P value
125 (100 %) 31 (24.8 %) 94 (75.2 %)
Sex     0.009
 Male 62 (49.6 %) 21 (67.7 %) 41 (43.6 %)  
 Female 63 (50.4 %) 10 (32.3 %) 53 (56.4 %)  
Taking antibiotic during last 8 weeks     0.072
 Yes 56 (44.8 %) 18 (58.1 %) 38 (40.41 %)  
 No 69 (55.2 %) 13 (41.9 %) 56 (59.6 %)  
Hospital admission in past 12 months     0.019
 Yes 23 (18.4 %) 10 (32.3 %) 13 (13.8 %)  
 No 102 (81.6 %) 21(67.7 %) 81 (86.2 %)  
Taking antacid drug during last 8 weeks     0.072
 Yes 11 (8.8 %) 5 (16.1 %) 6 (6.4 %)  
 No 114 (91.2 %) 26 (83.9 %) 88 (93.6 %)  
Drinking milk     0.011
 Regularly* 75 (60 %) 25 (80.6 %) 50 (53.2 %)  
 Rare^ or never 50 (40 %) 6 (19.4 %) 44 (46.8 %)  
Drinking or eating yogurt     0.039
 Regularly 77 (61.6 %) 23 (74.2 %) 54 (57.4 %)  
 Rare or never 48 (38.4 %) 8 (25.8 %) 40 (42.6 %)  
Eating cheese     0.019
 Regularly 74 (59.2 %) 23 (74.2 %) 51 (54.3 %)  
 Rare or never 51 (40.8 %) 8 (25.8 %) 43 (45.7 %)  
Eating meat     0.02
 Regularly 56 (44.8 %) 19 (61.3 %) 37 (39.4 %)  
 Rare or never 69 (55.2 %) 12 (38.7 %) 57 (60.6 %)  
Eating chicken     0.03
 Regularly 58 (46.6 %) 19 (61.3 %) 39 (41.5 %)  
 Rare or never 67 (53.6 %) 12 (38.7 %) 55 (58.5 %)  
Intimate hygiene habit     0.07
 Dry tissue or wipes 51 (40.8 %) 16 (51.6 %) 35 (37.2 %)  
 Water + soap or water + tissue 74 (59.2 %) 15 (48.4 %) 59 (62.8 %)  
Sharing toilet     0.12
 No 87 (69.6 %) 24 (77.4 %) 63(67 %)  
 Yes 38 (30.4 %) 7 (22.6 %) 31(33 %)  
  1. P value was calculated using Chi square test
  2. * Regularly: was considered as 3 times or more per week
  3. ^Rare: was considered as 2 times or less per week