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Table 2 Occurrence and prevalence of class 1 integron in Gram-positive microorganisms

From: Resistance integrons: class 1, 2 and 3 integrons

Date Bacterial History Description Ref
1998 Corynebacterium glutamicum First class 1 integron evidence in G+ microorganisms InCg on pCG4 (29-kb), identical to InC on pSA1700 [42]
1999 Enterococcus faecalis First class 1 integron report within Enterococcus and the species of E. faecalis aadA was found via hotizontal transfer between E. faecalis [43]
2002 Corynebacterium glutamicum   On pTET-3 (27.8-kb), with a novel aadA9 detected
2001–2004 Enterococcus faecalis First class 2 integron evidence in G+ microorganisms and first report of class 1 integron on the species of E. Faecium Three arrays (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, dfrA17-aadA5 and aadA2) for class 1 integron and array dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 for class 2 integron [44]
Enterococcus faecium
2001–2002 Streptococcus First class 1 integron report within Streptococcus Array of dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 detected [44]
2004 Corynebacterium ammoniagenes First class 1 integron report on Aerococcus spp. and the species of, C. ammoniagenes, C. casei, Brevibacterium thiogenitalis; also the first identification of class 1 integron from envirnmental G+ microorganisms Such integrons carried various antibiotic resistance genes and may serve as the potentially large reservior of class 1 integron [36]
Corynebacterium casei
Corynebacterium glutamicum
Aerococcus
Brevibacterium thiogenitalis
Staphylococcus
2001–2006 Staphylococcus aureus First class 1 integron evidence from clinical G+ microorganisms from a large scale and a long study duration; first class 1 integron identification from clinical S. aureus and the species of S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis and S. warneri Typically class 1 integrons were observed, with intI1 and 3′CS of ∆qacE, a sulI gene and ORF5. Four arrays (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, dfrA17-aadA5, aacA4-cmlA1 and aadA2) detected [3]
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Staphylococcus haemolyticus
Staphylococcus hominis
Staphylococcus warneri
2009 Staphylococcus epidermidis   With 78 % homologous int1 and the cassette arrays of aac6 [45]
2013 Staphylococcus aureus First class 1 integron report on the species of S. saprophyticus With identification rate of class 1 integron as 40.5 % (81/200) [46]
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Staphylococcus saprophyticus