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Table 1 Antibiotic resistant S. pneumoniae isolates.

From: Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

S. pneumoniae PEN OXA CHL CRO TET SXT ERY -Number of isolates tested
-Source
ES 1991-1993
[8]
I = 22.4% NA R = 29.7% NA NA I = 25% I = 0% -47
  R = 0%      R = 0% R = 0% -Blood
ES 1997-2000
[1]
I = 42% NA I = 0% I = 4% NA NA NA -138
  R = 0.8%   R = 14% R = 0%     -CSF and blood
ES 1998-2000
[4]
I = 52% I = 0% I = 0% I = 0% I = 21% I = 14% NA -29
  R = 0% R = 6% R = 2% R = 0% R = 41% R = 2%   -CSF
ES 1999-2000
[9]
R = 37% NA R = 18% R = 16% NA R = 37% R = 55% -51
         -non-blood
ES 1998-2003
[7]
I+R = NA I+R = I+R = I+R = I+R = I+R = -205
  50%   9% 6% 52% 59% 11% -CSF
ES 1998-2004
[2]
I+R = 49 NA I+R = I+R = I+R = I+R = I+R = -206
  %   9% 6% 52% 60% 11% -CSF
ES 2003-2005
[12, 22]
R = 30% NA NA NA NA NA R = 25% ---------
  1. The percentages of non-susceptible S. pneumoniae isolates to eight conventional antibiotics to S. pneumoniae isolated from CSF and/or blood in eight studies conducted from 1991-2004 are summarized.
  2. The percentage of penicillin susceptible S. pneumoniae dropped between 1993-2004; from 71% S. pneumoniae penicillin susceptibility in 1993 [8], 63% of isolates were susceptible to penicillin in 2000 [9], to 51% penicillin susceptibility in 2004 (2). The study conducted in 1998-2000 recommended ceftriaxone as the drug of choice for treatment of children with bacterial meningitis [4].
  3. The ES1999-2000study identified resistance to Ceftriaxone (84% susceptible) and Ciprofloxacin (82% susceptible) [9]. ES1998-2004 reported 4% multidrug resistance in S. pneumoniae [2]. Additionally, ES 2003-2005reported that 30% penicillin resistance and 25% erythromycin resistance among the S. pneumoniae Egypt isolates [12, 22].
  4. The antibiotic abbreviations: PEN, penicillin; OXA, oxacillin; CHL, chloramphenicol; CRO, ceftriaxone; TET, tetracycline; SXT, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; ERY, erythromycin and NA refers to data not available.
  5. (Intermediate resistance is abbreviated as I, and Resistance as R)