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Table 4 Enterobacteriaceae isolated from ICU patients during 2000–2002

From: Emerging resistance among bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit – a European and North American Surveillance study (2000–2002)

   United States Canada Italy Germany Francea
Organism Agent Total n %S %R Total n %S %R Total n %S %R Total n %S %R Total n %S %R
Escherichia coli Cefepime 10,356 98.1 1.5 207 98.1 1.9 1,426 98.1 1.4 2,830 98.6 1.2 4,358 98.9 0.6
  Cefotaxime 9,086 96.5 2.2 3,231 96.3 2.5 1,748 94.5 3.8 5,828 97.8 1.8 9,362 98.8 0.6
  Ceftazidime 14,574 95.3 3.0 4,438 97.7 1.6 2,548 94.7 3.7 3,924 97.9 1.6 9,164 97.8 1.2
  Ceftriaxone 15,897 97.4 1.7 3,829 96.8 2.2 1,423 94.4 4.2 534 99.8 0.2 834 98.6 1.0
  Ciprofloxacin 17,294 89.0 10.7 5,028 90.3 9.5 2,616 87.0 12.7 4,615 86.7 12.4 8,577 93.1 6.5
  Gentamicin 20,581 92.4 6.5 6,654 92.8 5.3 2,650 92.2 6.6 4,825 94.3 5.2 9,442 95.4 4.2
  Imipenem 15,353 100 0 3,386 100 0 2,254 100 0 5,172 100 0 8,994 100 0
  Levofloxacin 14,920 88.2 11.6 776 85.1 13.9 496 86.5 13.3 3,137 88.2 11.0 NTb NT NT
  Piperacillin-tazobactam 13,573 93.1 3.6 4,305 95.1 2.4 1,879 95.8 2.4 5,637 93.6 3.4 7,255 95.4 1.1
  Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 20,296 79.2 20.7 6,737 84.6 15.3 2,440 75.0 24.9 5,598 73.1 26.6 9,028 78.2 21.1
Klebsiella oxytoca                 
  Cefepime 1,476 96.2 3.3 19 100 0 255 99.6 0 566 96.8 2.7 478 97.1 0.4
  Cefotaxime 1,324 92.7 4.7 486 94.2 4.5 230 96.5 1.7 1,117 93.8 4.4 865 96.3 0.8
  Ceftazidime 1,909 91.7 7.0 661 94.9 4.1 361 83.4 15.2 749 95.3 4.5 870 98.3 0.5
  Ceftriaxone 2,035 89.9 6.6 536 93.8 2.8 197 81.7 2.0 83 97.6 0 79 87.3 2.5
  Ciprofloxacin 2,226 92.5 5.9 745 96.0 3.0 368 96.7 3.0 905 90.1 7.8 815 94.5 4.8
  Gentamicin 2,569 89.9 8.3 857 95.0 4.9 366 89.6 3.0 1,016 98.2 1.2 865 97.1 2.4
  Imipenem 2,061 100 0 516 100 0 337 100 0 1,062 100 0 845 100 0
  Levofloxacin 1,754 93.3 3.4 159 96.9 1.3 133 97.0 3.0 560 94.6 3.2 NT NT NT
  Piperacillin-tazobactam 1,801 82.7 13.9 624 91.2 7.1 313 81.8 11.2 1,113 78.9 18.1 742 88.3 10.4
  Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 2,467 92.5 7.5 863 96.3 3.6 308 95.1 4.9 1,084 93.7 6.3 802 94.1 5.7
Klebsiella pneumoniae                 
  Cefepime 7,276 95.8 3.4 98 100 0 552 93.5 5.6 1,068 95.7 3.5 840 95.6 3.0
  Cefotaxime 6,243 91.0 6.1 1,411 97.9 1.5 850 76.7 16.4 2,414 93.1 6.0 1,553 94.4 1.9
  Ceftazidime 9,597 88.5 10.1 2,238 97.5 2.2 1,142 69.8 28.5 1,665 90.0 8.2 1,591 92.5 5.2
  Ceftriaxone 10,337 92.7 4.7 1,736 97.9 1.1 816 75.2 15.0 166 98.8 0.6 112 86.6 5.4
  Ciprofloxacin 11,089 89.9 8.4 2,484 91.8 7.2 1,190 88.2 9.9 2,128 85.4 9.4 1,473 89.5 8.7
  Gentamicin 13,012 91.6 7.0 2,906 96.7 2.9 1,211 81.4 14.5 2,065 91.6 6.1 1,553 97.1 2.7
  Imipenem 10,263 100 0 1,766 100 0 1,066 100 0 2,351 100 0 1,567 100 0
  Levofloxacin 9,626 91.0 6.4 485 93.4 3.7 287 78.4 21.3 1,228 92.6 4.4 NT NT NT
  Piperacillin-tazobactam 9,359 85.9 7.4 2,160 91.5 2.7 746 82.2 14.6 2,408 84.9 8.3 1,286 89.4 5.1
  Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 12,641 88.6 11.1 2,924 92.8 7.1 1,103 82.0 18.0 2,324 82.2 17.2 1,443 88.2 10.9
Morganella morganii                 
  Cefepime 566 95.9 2.3 <10 NA NA 121 97.5 2.5 262 94.7 5.0 412 96.1 0.2
  Cefotaxime 499 78.8 8.4 156 91.0 3.8 144 74.3 6.3 437 86.7 3.9 678 81.1 5.9
  Ceftazidime 715 73.6 17.3 256 79.7 10.9 213 75.6 15.0 313 84.0 7.7 673 78.6 8.0
  Ceftriaxone 806 91.1 2.2 219 96.3 1.4 125 91.2 3.2 22 86.4 0 57 84.2 5.3
  Ciprofloxacin 841 78.1 20.7 292 94.2 4.5 220 87.3 9.5 344 97.7 2.0 634 88.6 8.5
  Gentamicin 967 84.0 14.1 329 94.5 4.6 222 90.1 8.6 378 96.8 2.1 679 95.6 3.4
  Imipenem 784 100 0 196 100 0 206 100 0 402 100 0 649 99.8 0
  Levofloxacin 725 78.1 19.3 42 95.2 4.8 55 90.9 9.1 251 98.0 1.6 NT NT NT
  Piperacillin-tazobactam 725 91.2 5.1 254 97.2 1.6 150 94.0 3.3 430 94.2 3.5 564 91.0 4.6
  Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 936 75.1 24.7 329 91.8 8.2 193 79.8 20.2 435 93.1 6.9 627 83.9 14.2
Proteus mirabilis                 
  Cefepime 1,964 98.2 1.0 20 100 0 395 87.6 11.4 599 99.2 0.8 736 99.0 0.1
  Cefotaxime 1,794 99.1 0.5 295 99.7 0 441 69.4 23.4 1,209 98.8 0.7 1,503 99.5 0.1
  Ceftazidime 2,684 98.0 1.1 463 99.4 0.2 630 86.0 9.4 821 98.5 1.0 1,505 99.3 0.2
  Ceftriaxone 3,034 99.4 0.3 392 99.5 0 385 80.5 13.8 77 98.7 0 72 100 0
  Ciprofloxacin 3,169 85.2 12.7 504 95.2 4.6 657 70.6 22.7 980 92.9 5.1 1,424 90.9 6.8
  Gentamicin 3,796 91.5 7.7 698 92.6 7.2 670 61.6 37.2 992 92.9 5.9 1,509 91.3 7.9
  Imipenem 2,850 100 0 367 100 0 580 100 0 1,020 100 0 1,319 100 0
  Levofloxacin 2,825 87.8 10.5 94 100 0 202 61.9 34.7 688 96.5 2.3 <10 NAc NA
  Piperacillin-tazobactam 2,715 97.7 0.8 449 98.2 0.2 465 95.7 2.8 1,201 98.6 0.8 1,231 99.3 0.2
  Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 3,706 85.2 14.7 708 89.4 10.6 615 61.6 38.0 1,159 80.8 19.1 1,411 79.7 18.6
Serratia marcescens                 
  Cefepime 3,653 96.7 2.3 52 96.2 1.9 497 96.8 2.2 546 94.1 3.5 509 98.6 0.2
  Cefotaxime 3,134 87.0 5.7 670 92.8 2.7 470 79.6 9.8 951 84.0 7.5 809 81.5 3.3
  Ceftazidime 4,718 89.7 7.9 1,113 95.2 3.0 738 81.4 13.3 851 89.7 7.5 812 94.7 3.0
  Ceftriaxone 4,710 90.5 4.6 846 95.4 1.7 444 86.7 6.3 160 45.6 0 115 77.4 4.3
  Ciprofloxacin 5,006 91.0 6.7 1,292 85.0 11.7 757 83.5 4.5 978 72.6 12.4 787 78.9 10.5
  Gentamicin 5,905 92.9 5.9 1,313 94.6 5.2 758 97.4 2.1 665 92.9 6.3 808 91.6 6.6
  Imipenem 4,960 100 0 880 100 0 727 100 0 1,018 100 0 805 100 0
  Levofloxacin 4,356 94.3 4.2 264 92.4 4.2 266 95.5 1.5 595 87.6 6.6 <10 NA NA
  Piperacillin-tazobactam 4,337 88.1 5.1 1,155 91.6 3.3 547 92.7 3.8 1,053 77.6 3.1 749 82.6 2.4
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 5,697 95.9 3.9 1,325 94.9 5.1 646 81.4 18.6 908 88.1 10.9 699 84.1 13.6  
  1. aNCCLS breakpoints were used for all countries, except France (CA-SFM) bNot tested cNot applicable if <10 isolates were tested