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Table 3 S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and Viridans group streptococci isolated from ICU patients during 2000–2002

From: Emerging resistance among bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit – a European and North American Surveillance study (2000–2002)

   United States Canada Italy Germany Francea
Organism Agent Total n %S %R Total n %S %R Total n %S %R Total n %S %R Total n %S %R
Streptococcus pneumoniae Amoxicillin 120 91.7 2.5 31 100 0 60 93.3 6.7 17 100 0 1,328 71.2 2.3
  Cefepime 22 90.9 4.5 25 60.0 12.0 66 90.9 7.6 NTb NT NT <10 NAc NA
  Cefotaxime 1,571 82.2 6.3 145 93.8 0.7 108 93.5 4.6 63 100 0 1,181 77.1 0.8
  Ceftriaxone 2,373 88.3 3.2 145 91.7 0.7 145 91.7 3.4 29 100 0 544 80.1 0.6
  Clarithromycin 184 71.7 25.5 56 69.6 30.4 90 64.4 31.1 <10 NA NA NT NT NT
  Erythromycin 3,029 67.9 30.5 539 78.5 20.8 313 69.6 28.1 405 88.6 9.4 1,567 59.0 38.8
  Levofloxacin 2,133 99.1 0.4 356 98.6 1.1 174 98.3 0.6 340 99.4 0.3 62 98.4 1.6
  Penicillin 3,096 51.5 20.2 325 59.1 7.1 198 77.3 7.6 102 96.1 2.0 1,387 45.5 17.9
  Vancomycin 2,865 100 -c 271 100 - 231 100 - 190 100 - 1,479 100 -
Streptococcus pyogenes                 
  Amoxicillin NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT 58 100 0
  Cefepime <10 NA NA NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT
  Cefotaxime 32 100 - 29 100 - <10 NA NA 11 100 - 30 100 -
  Ceftriaxone 75 100 - <10 NA NA <10 NA NA <10 NA NA <10 NA NA
  Clarithromycin 19 84.2 5.3 <10 NA NA 17 88.2 11.8 NT NT NT NT NT NT
  Erythromycin 118 92.4 6.8 102 81.4 11.8 59 74.6 23.7 63 84.1 11.1 170 82.9 14.7
  Levofloxacin 71 97.2 1.4 <10 NA NA <10 NA NA 61 77.0 4.9 NT NT NT
  Penicillin 140 100 - 97 100 - 58 100 - 64 100 - 139 100 -
  Vancomycin 121 100 - 42 100 - 12 100 - 34 100 - 162 100 -
Streptococcus agalactiae                 
  Amoxicillin NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT 165 100 0
  Cefepime 28 100 - NT NT NT <10 NA NA NT NT NT NT NT NT
  Cefotaxime 71 100 - 17 100 - 24 100 - 50 100 - 50 100 -
  Ceftriaxone 184 100 - <10 NA NA 38 100 - 37 100 - <10 NA NA
  Clarithromycin 21 81.0 9.5 <10 NA NA 21 71.4 28.6 NT NT NT <10 NA NA
  Erythromycin 489 76.3 21.7 222 82.9 14.9 121 77.7 18.2 192 83.9 10.9 588 79.9 16.2
  Levofloxacin 333 97.9 1.2 <10 NA NA 51 98.0 0 180 91.1 1.7 173 99.4 0
  Penicillin 518 100 - 226 100 - 145 100 - 184 100 - 369 100 -
  Vancomycin 463 100 - 179 100 - 143 100 - 65 100 - 526 100 -
Streptococcus viridans group                 
  Amoxicillin NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT 268 92.9 0.7
  Cefepime 23 95.7 4.3 NT NT NT 12 66.7 33.3 NT NT NT NT NT NT
  Cefotaxime 434 83.6 11.1 101 92.1 4.0 31 90.3 9.7 75 97.3 2.7 56 94.6 0
  Ceftriaxone 678 87.3 7.7 130 89.2 3.8 99 81.8 18.2 40 97.5 2.5 <10 NA NA
  Clarithromycin 34 52.9 38.2 21 76.2 19.0 21 71.4 23.8 <10 NA NA NT NT NT
  Erythromycin 959 57.2 37.7 289 71.6 23.2 192 64.6 32.8 796 88.1 9.2 626 59.9 31.6
  Levofloxacin 331 96.1 2.7 <10 NA NA 16 87.5 0 93 89.2 4.3 <10 NA NA
  Penicillin 1,047 63.7 6.2 303 79.2 0 61 78.7 8.2 <10 NA NA 452 69.0 3.1
Vancomycin 1,095 100 - 276 100 - 180 100 - 277 100 - 580 100 -  
  1. aNCCLS breakpoints were used for all countries, except France (CA-SFM) bNot tested cBreakpoints do not currently exist to interpret as S (susceptible) or R (resistant)