Transmission electron micrograph of S. epidermidis treated with A. crassna leaves extract. A, B and C are overview of the untreated cells and cells treated with vancomycin and the extract, respectively (Enlargement: ×15000). Bacterial cells with irregular shape were seen in both treated groups. Damaged cell walls (arrows) were observed after 24 h of incubation with vancomycin (E) and the extract (F), compared with control (D). Enlargement: ×43000.