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Table 3 Antifungal interactions (FICI) of benzaldehyde derivatives tested alone or in combination with antimycin A or carboxin in microtiter plates1.

From: Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

Compounds MIC alone MIC combined FICI MIC: alone MIC: combined FICI MIC: alone MIC: combined FICI
Strains A. terreus UAB698    A. terreus UAB680    A. terreus UAB673   
Cinnamaldehyde
Antimycin A
0.2 - 0.4
> 128 2
0.1 - 0.2
8 - 16
0.56 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
4 - 8
0.53 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
4 - 8
0.53 A
o-Vanillin
Antimycin A
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
4 - 8
0.53 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
4 - 8
0.53 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
4 - 8
0.53 A
2-Hydroxy-5-methoxy
Antimycin A
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
64 - 128
1.00 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
8 - 16
0.56 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
8 - 16
0.56 A
Strains A. flavus NRRL3357    A. fumigatus AF293    P. expansum NRRL974   
Cinnamaldehyde
Antimycin A
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
2.00 N 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
2.00 N 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.05 - 0.1
8 - 16
0.31 S
o-Vanillin
Antimycin A
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
16 - 32
0.63 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
2.00 N 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.05 - 0.1
4 - 8
0.28 S
2-Hydroxy-5-methoxy
Antimycin A
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
64 - 128
1.00 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
2.00 N 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.05 - 0.1
4 - 8
0.28 S
Strains A. terreus UAB698    A. terreus UAB680    A. terreus UAB673   
Cinnamaldehyde
Carboxin
0.2 - 0.4
> 128 2
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
2.00 N 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
2.00 N 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
2.00 N
o-Vanillin
Carboxin
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
64 - 128
1.00 A 0.1 - 0.2
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
> 128
2.00 N 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
64 - 128
1.00 A
2-Hydroxy-5-methoxy
Carboxin
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
64 - 128
1.00 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
32 - 64
0.75 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
16 - 32
0.63 A
Strains A. flavus NRRL3357    A. fumigatus AF293    P. expansum NRRL974   
Cinnamaldehyde
Carboxin
0.4 - 0.8
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
64 - 128
1.00 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
2.00 N 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.1 - 0.2
64 - 128
1.00 A
o-Vanillin
Carboxin
0.4 - 0.8
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
64 - 128
1.00 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
2.00 N 0.4 - 0.8
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
16 - 32
0.63 A
2-Hydroxy-5-methoxy
Carboxin
0.4 - 0.8
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
32 - 64
0.75 A 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
2.00 N 0.2 - 0.4
> 128
0.2 - 0.4
> 128
2.00 N
  1. 1Compound interactions were determined as Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Indices (FICI), described by Isenberg ([47]; See also Methods). For calculation purposes, the higher concentration in each column was used. A, additive; N, neutral; S, synergistic. Benzaldehyde derivatives (mM)- cinnamaldehyde, o-vanillin, 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde; Complex II inhibitor (μg/ml)- Carboxin; Complex III inhibitor (μg/ml)- Antimycin A.
  2. 2Since antifungal test was performed up to 128 μg/ml of antimycin A or carboxin (See Methods), 256 μg/ml (doubling of 128 μg/ml) was used for calculation purposes.