Targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain. (A) Schematic representation of mitochondrial respiratory chain (Adapted from  and . CoQ, Coenzyme Q; CytC, Cytochrome C; e-, Electrons; Dashed lines, Electron flow. (B) Differential antifungal efficacy of inhibitors (0.1 mM) of mitochondrial respiration targeting complexes I to IV and alternative oxidases (AOX), tested in Aspergillus fumigatus AF293. Results indicated that targeting complex II or III by using carboxin, TTFA, antimycin A, kresoxim methyl or pyraclostrobin resulted in higher inhibition of fungal growth than targeting other complexes (%: Growth inhibition rate, SD < 5%). Rot, Rotenone; Carb, Carboxin; TTFA, Thenoyltrifluoroacetone; 3-NPA, 3-Nitropropionic acid; BHAM, Benzhydroxamic acid; SHAM, Salicylhydroxamic acid; AntA, Antimycin A; Kre-Me, Kresoxim methyl; PCS, Pyraclostrobin; KCN, Potassium cyanide; Na-azide, Sodium azide. I to IV, complexes I to IV of mitochondrial respiratory chain; AOX, Alternative oxidases.