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Table 1 The summary of medicinal plants and their traditional uses

From: In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases

Botanical name (Voucher number)/Local name Family Traditional uses Organ tested Isolated phytochemicals Literature Source
Asphodelus tenuifolius
(MDU 6807)/Piyazi
Liliaceae The seeds are generally taken for colds and hemorrhoids, a febrifuge and also used for rheumatic pain. Seeds are also used as diuretic agent, healing wound and they are applied externally to ulcers and for inflamed parts. FR AL, AN, RS, SA, TA, ST [2123]
Asparagus racemosus Willd.
(MDU 6806)/Shatavari
Liliaceae The root of the plant is used to promote milk secretion and as demulcent, diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic antiparasitic, antitumor and ant diarrhea. It is also used to treat debility, (especially in women), infertility, impotence, menopause problems, for stomach ulcers, hyperacidity, dehydration, cough and chronic fevers. TU AL, SA, TA, FL, RS, PH, AA [25, 27]
Balanites aegyptiaca L.
(MDU 1601)/Hingote
Balanitaceae The fruit can used to cure mouth ulcer, whooping cough, sleeping sickness and skin diseases. Fruit kernel has been found as mild laxatives, antidote to arrow poison, and also act as Vermifuge. FR AL, CG; FL, RS, SA, TA, PH [21, 22, 24]
Cestrum diurnum L.
(MDU 5112)/Din ka raja
Solanaceae The leaf paste is used in joint pain. AP SP, AL, RS, OL [22]
Cordia dichotoma G. Forst (MDU 4801)/
Boraginaceae The fruit of the plant is used as antihelminthic, diuretic, purgative, useful in dry cough, for cure of jaundice, wound purification, mouth ulcer, and increase male potency. FR FL, AL, AA, PR [22, 25]
Eclipta alba L.
( MDU 3803)/Bhringraj
Asteraceae The whole plant is used particularly for alopecia, ringworm, as a hair dye, for liver and spleen enlargement, hepatitis, jaundice and as a general tonic. It has been also used for cataract, cough, hemorrhage, indigestion, toothache, as an antiseptic and a wound healing agent. WP SA, FL, PH, OL, PR, AA, AD [25, 27]
Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.
( MDU 1505)/Kurry patte
Rutaceae The leave, bark and the root are used intensively in indigenous medicine from ancient time, as a tonic for stomachache, stimulant and carminative. Its leaves are also used in treatment of piles, headache, stomach ache, influenza, rheumatism, traumatic injury, insect, snake bites, anti-vomiting, curing dysentery and diarrhea. Leaves are stimulant and astringent and are used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and diseases of teeth and gum, useful against rheumatism, coughs and hysteria. LE AL, RS, SA TA, TR, PR [21, 23, 26]
Pedalium murex L.
(MDU 5401)/Bada Gohkru
Pedaliaceae The fruit is used as an aphrodisiac, antiseptic, demulcent, diuretic and its decoction is also given in incontinence, spermatorrhoea, nocturnal emission and to promote lochial discharges. FR SP, AL, FL, TA, ST, OL, RS, RE [23, 26]
Ricinus communis L.
(MDU 6210)/Arand
Euphorbiaceae The extract of seeds is used internally for acute constipation, intestinal inflammation, for removal of worms, rheumatism and as form of birth control. This plant is used as an antidote, bactericide, expectorant, insecticide, larvicidal, laxative, purgative, tonic, and Vermifuge. Castor or castor oil is used as ingredient in folk remedies for abscess, arthritis, asthma, boils, burns, cancer, cold, colic, convulsions, corns, dermatitis, dog bite etc. FR AL, FL, PR, ST, OL, RE [21, 24, 25]
Trigonella foenum graecum L.
(MDU 2418)/Methi
Fabaceae The leaves as a cooked vegetable, is a recommended household remedy for fever and swelling. It also aids in controlling the cough. Leaves also tunes up the appetite, improves digestion, eliminates gaseous distention and relieves the heaviness and abdominal pain. LE AL, CG, FL, RS, SA, TA [21, 26]
  1. Abbreviations: FR: fruit; LE: leaves; AL: alkaloid; TA: tannins; FA: fatty acids; PR: proteins; FL: flavonoids; OL: oil; RS: reducing sugars; FL: flavonoids; RE: resins; AD: aldehyde; SP: saponins; ST: steroids; AA: amino acids; PH: phenols; AN: anthraquinones; ST: steroids; TR: terpenes; CG: cardiac glycosides.